Application of Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction in Narrow-Bore Tube for Preconcentration and Spectrophotometric Determination of Cadmium in Aqueous Samples
More details
Hide details
University of Sistan and Baluchestan, IRAN
Mashaallah Rahmani   

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan 98135-674, Iran
Online publication date: 2016-12-15
Publication date: 2016-12-15
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2017;12(3):197–209
A novel liquid phase microextraction based on narrow bore-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (NB-DLLME) is introduced and developed for preconcentration and extraction of cadmium in aquoeus samples using spectrophotometry. Unlike previous NB-DLLME methods, in this research work a solvent with a density higher than water (carbon tetrachloride) is used as extractant solvent. The effects of different parameters such as kind and volume of extractant and dispersive solvent, internal diameter and lengnth of narrow bore, and concentration of salt are studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, dynamic range of calibration curve was linear in the range of 50-900 μg.L-1. The detection limit and relative standard deveiation were calculated to be 6.3 μg.L-1 and 6.4%, respectively.
Lemly, A. D. (2004). Aquatic selenium pollution is a global environmental safety issue. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 59, 44.
Förstner, U., & Wittmann, G. T. (2012). Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Springer Science and Business Media.
Duruibe, J. O., Ogwuegbu, M. O. C., & Egwurugwu, J. N. (2007). Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2,112.
Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M., & Marshall, F. (2007). Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 66, 258.
Dudka, S., & Adriano, D. C. (1997). Environmental impacts of metal ore mining and processing, a review. Journal of environmental quality, 26, 590.
Govil, P., Reddy, G., & Krishna, A. (2001). Contamination of soil due to heavy metals in the Patancheru industrial development area, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Geology, 41, 461.
Järup, L. (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British medical bulletin, 68, 167.
Mousavi, H. Z., & Seyedi, S. R. (2011) Nettle ash as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of nickel and cadmium from wastewater. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 8, 195.
Rikans, L. E., & Yamano, T. (2000). Mechanisms of cadmium‐mediated acute hepatotoxicity. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology, 14, 110.
Lemos, V. A., & de Carvalho, A. L. (2010). Determination of cadmium and lead in human biological samples by spectrometric techniques, a review. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 171, 255.
Ferreira, S. L., de Andrade, J. B., Maria das Graças, A. K., Pereira, M. D. G., Lemos, V. A., dos Santos, W. N., & da Silva, E. G. (2007). Review of procedures involving separation and preconcentration for the determination of cadmium using spectrometric techniques. Journal of hazardous materials, 145, 358.
Bezerra, M. D. A., Arruda, M. A. Z., & Ferreira, S. L. C. (2005). Cloud point extraction as a procedure of separation and pre‐concentration for metal determination using spectroanalytical techniques, a review. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 40, 269.
Taylor, M. J. C., & Van Staden, J. F. (1994). Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V) in each other's presence. Review. Analyst, 119, 1263.
Deligöz, H., & Yilmaz, M. (1995). Liquid-liquid extraction of transition metal cations by calixarene-based cyclic ligands. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, 13, 19.
Saito, K., Masuda, Y., & Sekido, E. (1983). Liquid—liquid extraction of metal ions by the thiacrown compound 1, 4, 8, 11-tetrathiacyclotetradecane. Analytica Chimica Acta, 151, 447.
Visser, A. E., Swatloski, R. P., Griffin, S. T., Hartman, D. H., & Rogers, R. D. (2001). Liquid/liquid extraction of metal ions in room temperature ionic liquids. Separation Science and Technology, 36, 785.
Ghasemi, E., & Kaykhaii, M. (2015). Developing a New Micro Cloud Point Extraction Method for Simultaneous Preconcentration and Spectrophotometric Determination of Uranium and Vanadium in Brine. Analytical Sciences, 31, 407.
Morse, J. W., & Arakaki, T. (1993). Adsorption and coprecipitation of divalent metals with mackinawite (FeS). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 3635.
Crawford, R. J., Harding, I. H., & Mainwaring, D. E. (1993). Adsorption and coprecipitation of multiple heavy metal ions onto the hydrated oxides of iron and chromium. Langmuir, 9, 3057.
Crawford, R. J., Mainwaring, D. E., & Harding, I. H. (1997). Adsorption and coprecipitation of heavy metals from ammoniacal solutions using hydrous metal oxides. Colloids and Surfaces A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 126, 167.
Aydin, F. A., & Soylak, M. (2007). A novel multi-element coprecipitation technique for separation and enrichment of metal ions in environmental samples. Talanta, 73, 134.
Yeager, H. L., & Steck, A. (1979). Ion-exchange selectivity and metal ion separations with a perfluorinated cation-exchange polymer. Analytical Chemistry, 51, 862.
Ćurković, L., Cerjan-Stefanović, Š., & Filipan, T. (1997). Metal ion exchange by natural and modified zeolites. Water research, 31, 1379.
Weng, L., Temminghoff, E. J. M., & Van Riemsdijk, W. H. (2001). Determination of the free ion concentration of trace metals in soil solution using a soil column Donnan membrane technique. European Journal of Soil Science, 52, 629.
Temminghoff, E. J., Plette, A. C., Van Eck, R., & Van Riemsdijk, W. H. (2000). Determination of the chemical speciation of trace metals in aqueous systems by the Wageningen Donnan Membrane Technique. Analytica Chimica Acta, 417, 149.
Li, Z., Yu, J. W., & Neretnieks, I. (1998). Electroremediation, removal of heavy metals from soils by using cation selective membrane. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 394.
Pena-Pereira, F., Lavilla, I., & Bendicho, C. (2010). Liquid-phase microextraction approaches combined with atomic detection, a critical review. Analytica chimica acta, 669, 1.
Dadfarnia, S., & Shabani, A. M. H. (2010). Recent development in liquid phase microextraction for determination of trace level concentration of metals-A review. Analytica Chimica Acta, 658, 107.
Wen, X., Yang, Q., Yan, Z., & Deng, Q. (2011). Determination of cadmium and copper in water and food samples by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with UV–vis spectrophotometry. Microchemical Journal, 97, 249.
Yousefi, S. R., & Shemirani, F. (2010). Development of a robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction against high concentration of salt for preconcentration of trace metals in saline aqueous samples, Application to the determination of Pb and Cd. Analytica Chimica Acta, 669, 25.
Jahromi, E. Z., Bidari, A., Assadi, Y., Hosseini, M. R. M., & Jamali, M. R. (2007). Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, Ultra trace determination of cadmium in water samples. Analytica Chimica Acta, 585, 305.
Rivas, R. E., López-García, I., & Hernández-Córdoba, M. (2010). Microextraction based on solidification of a floating organic drop followed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of ultratraces of lead and cadmium in waters. Analytical Methods, 2, 225.
Dadfarnia, S., Shabani, A. M. H., & Kamranzadeh, E. (2009). Separation/preconcentration and determination of cadmium ions by solidification of floating organic drop microextraction and FI-AAS. Talanta, 79, 1061.
Fan, Z., & Zhou, W. (2006). Dithizone–chloroform single drop microextraction system combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Ir as permanent modifier for the determination of Cd in water and biological samples. Spectrochimica Acta Part B, Atomic Spectroscopy, 61, 870.
Nazari, S. (2008). Determination of trace amounts of cadmium by modified graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after liquid phase microextraction. Microchemical Journal, 90, 107.
Zuloaga, O., Olivares, M., Navarro, P., Vallejo, A., & Prieto, A. (2015). Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, trends in the analysis of biological samples. Bioanalysis, 7, 2211.
Rezaee, M., Yamini, Y., & Faraji, M. (2010). Evolution of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction method. Journal of Chromatography A, 1217, 2342.
Chamsaz, M., Atarodi, A., Eftekhari, M., Asadpour, S., & Adibi, M. (2013). Vortex-assisted ionic liquid microextraction coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of trace levels of cadmium in real samples. Journal of advanced research, 4, 35.
Tuzen, M., & Pekiner, O. Z. (2015). Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric for selenium speciation in foods and beverages. Food chemistry, 188, 619.
Cruz-Vera, M., Lucena, R., Cárdenas, S., & Valcárcel, M. (2009). One-step in-syringe ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. Journal of Chromatography A, 1216, 6459.
Farajzadeh, M. A., Djozan, D., & Khorram, P. (2012). Development of a new dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction method in a narrow-bore tube for preconcentration of triazole pesticides from aqueous samples. Analytica Chimica Acta, 713, 70.
Rahmani, M., Kaykhaii, M., Ghasemi, E., & Tahernejad, M. (2015). Application of In-Syringe Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction and Narrow-Bore Tube Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Trace Amounts of BTEX in Water Samples. Journal of chromatographic science, 53, 1210.
Fu, J., Wang, X., Li, J., Ding, Y., & Chen, L. (2016). Synthesis of multi-ion imprinted polymers based on dithizone chelation for simultaneous removal of Hg 2+, Cd 2+, Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ from aqueous solutions. RSC Advances, 6, 44087.
Acayanka, E., Laminsi, S., Ndifon, P. T., Berthelot, S. T., & Brisset, J. L. (2013). Degradation of dithizone by non thermal quenched plasma of gliding arc type. Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies, 16, 188.
Wen, X., Deng, Q., Guo, J., & Yang, S. (2011) .Ultra-sensitive determination of cadmium in rice and water by UV–vis spectrophotometry after single drop microextraction. Spectrochimica Acta Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 79, 508.