Chemically Modified Polystyrene with a Synthesized N3O2 Schiff Base as a New Solid Phase Sorbent for on Line Preconcentration and Determination of Copper(II) in Water Samples by FAAS
 
More details
Hide details
1
College of Chemistry, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, P.O. Box 36155-316, Iran
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Mansour Arab Chamjangali   

College of Chemistry, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, P.O. Box 36155-316, Iran
Publication date: 2017-11-01
 
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2011;6(3):173–188
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
This paper reports the synthesis and application of a new sorbent for on-line preconcentration of copper prior to its determination with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The sorbent was prepared by immobilization of N,N-bis(naphthylideneimino)diethylenetriamine on chloromethylated polystyrene. Copper was sorbed on a mini-column packed with sorbent and subsequent eluted quantitatively by HCl and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). All variables were optimized for the quantitative preconcentration of copper ions and a study of interference level of various ions was also carried out. Under the optimum conditions, linear calibration graphs over the concentration ranges of 2.0-44.0 and 0.70-30.0 μg L-1; detection limits of 1.4 and 0.46 μg L-1; and enrichment factors of 80 and 183 were obtained for the preconcentration volumes of 10.0 and 25.0 mL of copper(II) solutions, respectively. Good relative standard deviations of 4.1 and 3.5% for ten replicate determinations of 10.0 and 30.0 μg L−1 of copper were obtained, respectively.
 
REFERENCES (56)
1.
Sharma B K (1997) Environmental Chemistry Goel Publishing House Meerut, India.
 
2.
Moore J W, Ramamoorthy S (1984) Heavy Metals in Natural Waters Springer-Verlag, New York.
 
3.
Förstner U, Wittmann G T (1981) Metal pollution in the aquatic environment Springer, Berlin.
 
4.
Dieter H H, Schimmelpfennig W, Meyer E, Tabert M (1999) Early childhood cirrhoses (ECC) in Germany between 1982 and 1994 with special consideration of copper etiology. Eur J Med Res 4:233.
 
5.
Tao G, Fang Z, Baasner J, Welts B (2003) Flow injection on-line dilution for flame atomic absorption spectrometry by micro-sample introduction and dispersion using syringe pumps. Anal Chim Acta 481:273.
 
6.
Bezerra M A, Arruda M A Z, Ferreira S L C (2005) Cloud Point Extraction Review. Appl Spectrosc Rev 40:269.
 
7.
Stalikas C D (2002) Micelle-mediated extraction as a tool for separation and preconcentration in metal analysis. Trends Anal Chem 21:343.
 
8.
Miró M, Frenzel W (2004) Automated membrane-based sampling and sample preparation exploiting flow-injection analysis. Trends Anal Chem 23:624.
 
9.
Camel V (2003) Solid phase extraction of trace elements. Spectrochim Acta Part B 58:1177.
 
10.
Liu P, Su Z, Wu X, Pu Q (2002) Application of isodiphenylthiourea immobilized silica gel to flow injection on-line microcolumn preconcentration and separation coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for interference-free determination of trace silver, gold, palladium and platinum in geological and metallurgical samples. J Anal At Spectrom 17:125.
 
11.
Fang Z (1995) Flow Injection Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, West Sussex, England.
 
12.
Zhang S, Pu Q, Liu P, Sun Q, Su Z (2002) Synthesis of amidinothioureido-silica gel and its application to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of silver, gold and palladium with on-line preconcentration and separation. Anal Chim Acta 452:223.
 
13.
Ferreira S L C, Lemos V A, Santelli RE, Ganzarolli E, Curtius AJ (2001) An automated on-line flow system for the pre-concentration and determination of lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchem J 68:41.
 
14.
Liang H D, Han D M (2006) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as sorbent for flow injection on-line microcolumn preconcentration coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of cadmium and copper. Anal Lett 39:2285.
 
15.
Fang Z, Guo T, Welz B (1991) Determination of cadmium, lead and copper in water samples by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry with preconcentration by flowinjection on-line sorbent extraction. Talanta 38:613.
 
16.
Xu S, Sperling M, Welz B (1992) Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium and copper in biological reference materials using on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration. Fresenius J Anal Chem 344:535.
 
17.
Ma R, Van Mol W, Adams F (1994) Determination of cadmium, copper and lead in environmental samples An evaluation of flowinjection on-line sorbent extraction for flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 285:33.
 
18.
Ali A, Yin X, Shen H, Ye Y, Gu X (1999) 1,10-Phenanthroline as a complexing agent for on-line sorbent extraction/preconcentration for flow injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 392:283.
 
19.
da Silva E L, Martins A O, Valentini A, de Favere V T, Carasek E (2004) Application of silica gel organofunctionalized with 3-(1-imidazolyl)propyl in an online preconcentration system for the determination of copper by FAAS. Talanta 64:181.
 
20.
Gu X, Xu G M, Ye Y X, Yin X F (2000) Copper determination by flow injection online sorbent preconcentration coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry using 1,10-phenanthroline. Lab Robotics Automat 12:97
 
21.
Dadfarnia S, Shabani A M H, Tamaddon F, Rezaei M (2005) Immobilized salen (N,N-bis(salicylidene) ethylenediamine) as a complexing agent for on-line sorbent extraction/preconcentration and flowinjection–flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 539:69.
 
22.
Dadfarnia S, Salmanzadeh A M, Shabani A H M (2002) Immobilized 1,5-diphenylcarbazone as a complexing agent for on-line trace enrichment and determination of copper by flow injection-atomic absorption spectroscopy. J Anal At Spectro 17:1434.
 
23.
da Silva E L, Ganzarolli E M, Carasek E (2004) Use of Nb2O5–SiO2 in an automated on-line preconcentration system for determination of copper and cadmium by FAAS. Talanta 62:727.
 
24.
Lemos V A, Teixeira L S G,, Bezerra M A, Costa A C S, Castro J T, Cardoso L A M de Jesus D S, Santos E S, Baliza P X, Santos L N (2008) Materials for solid-phase extraction of trace elements. Appl Spectrosc Rev 43:303.
 
25.
de Pena Y P, Lopez W, Burguera J L, Burguera M, Gallignani M, Brunetto R, Carrero P, Rondon C, Imbert F (2000) Synthetic zeolites as sorbent material for online preconcentration of copper traces and its determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 403:249.
 
26.
Chen H, Xu S, Fang Z (1994) Determination of copper in water and rice samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with flow-injection on-line adsorption preconcentration using a knotted reactor. Anal Chim Acta 298:167.
 
27.
Li Y, Jiang Y, Ping Yan X (2004) Further study on a flowinjection on-line multiplexed sorption preconcentration coupledwithflameatomic absorption spectrometry for trace element determination. Talanta 64:758.
 
28.
Yan X P, Li Y, Jiang Y (2002) A flow injection on-line displacement/sorption preconcentration and separation technique coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of trace copper in complicated matrices. J Anal At Spectro 17:610
 
29.
Ferreira S, Lemos V A, Moreira B C, Spinola Costa A C, Santelli R E (2000) An online continuous flow system for copper enrichment and determination by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Anal Chim Acta 403:259.
 
30.
Lemos V A, Baliza P X (2005) Amberlite XAD-2 functionalized with 2-aminothiophenol as a new sorbent for on-line preconcentration of cadmium and opper. Talanta 67:564.
 
31.
Cassella R J, Magalhaes O I B, Couto M T, Lima E L S, Neves M A F S, Coutinho F M B (2005) Synthesis and application of a functionalized resin for flow injection/FAAS copper determination in waters. Talanta 67:121.
 
32.
Yebra M C, Carro N, Enriquez M F (2001) A Moreno-Cid A Garcia, Field sample preconcentration of copper in sea water using chelating minicolumns subsequently incorporated on a flow-injection–flame atomic absorption spectrometry system. Analyst 126:933.
 
33.
Anthemidis A N, Zachariadis G A, Stratis J A (2002) On-line preconcnetration and determination of copper, lead and chromium(VI) using unloaded polyurethane foam packed column by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in natural waters and biological samples. Talanta 58:831.
 
34.
Lemos V A, de Jesus A A, Gama E M, David G T, Yamaki R T (2005) On-line solid phase extraction and determination of copper in food samples using polyurethane foam loaded with Me-BTANC. Anal Lett 38:683.
 
35.
Akelah A, Moet A (1990) Functionalized Polymers and their Applications, Chapman and Hall, Great Britain.
 
36.
Mashhadizadeh M H, Pour Taheri E, Sheikhshoaie I (2007) A novel Mn2+ membrane electrode based on a recently synthesized Schiff base. Talanta 72:1088.
 
37.
Sadeghi S, Fathi F, Esmaeili A A, Naeimi H (2006) Novel triiodide ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes based on some transition metal-Schiff base complexes. Sens Actuators B114:928.
 
38.
Ziyadanoğullar B, Ceviziçi D, Temel H, Ziyadanoğullar R (2008) Synthesis, characterization and structure effects on preconcentration and extraction of N,N′-bis-(salicylaldehydene)-1,4-bis-(p-aminophenoxy) butane towards some divalent cations. J Hazard Mater 150:285.
 
39.
Vogel A I (2000) A Text Book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis sixth ed. Longmans, London.
 
40.
Coleman W M, Boggess R K, Hughes J W, Taylor L T (1981) Electrochemical studies of manganese(II) complexes containing pentadentate ligands with O2N3, O3N2, and O2SN2 donor sets. Inorg Chem 20:700.
 
41.
Benabdallah T, Al-taiar A H, Reffas H (2004) Spectrophotometric studies of the behaviour of multidentate schiff base ligands with copper(II) in methanol solution. S Afr J Chem 57:33.
 
42.
Arab Chamjangali M, Talebzadeh Farooji S, Bahramian B (2010) Application of chloromethylated polystyrene functionalized with N,N-bis (naphthylideneimino) diethylenetriamine in an on-line preconcentration system for the determination of cadmium by FAAS. J Hazard Mater 174:843.
 
43.
Hancock R D, Martell A E (1989) Ligand design for selective complexation of metal ions in aqueous solution. Chem Rev 89:1875.
 
44.
Pinto C G, Pavon J L P, Cordero B M, Beato E R, Sanchez S S (1996) Cloud point preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometry: application to the determination of cadmium. J Anal At Spect 11:37.
 
45.
Ma R, Woods G, McLeod C W (1999) Flow Analysis with Atomic Spectrometric Detectors, Anal Spectrosc Library, Vol. 9, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999, p 439.
 
46.
Tuzen M, Soylak M, Citak D, Ferreira HS, Korn M G A, Bezerra M A (2009) A preconcentration system for determination of copper and nickel in water and food samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Hazard Mater 162:1041.
 
47.
Sabermahani F, Taher M A (2006) Application of a new water-soluble polyethylenimine polymer sorbent for simultaneous separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of copper and manganese and their determination by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anal Chim Acta 565:152.
 
48.
Fathi S A M, Yaftian M R (2008) Enrichment of trace amounts of copper(II) ions in water samples using octadecyl silica disks modified by a Schiff base ionophore prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. J Hazard Mater 164:133.
 
49.
Afzali D, Mostafavi A, Taher M A, Moradian A (2007) Flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination of trace amounts of copper after separation and preconcentration onto TDMBAC-treated analcime pyrocatechol-immobilized. Talanta 71:971.
 
50.
Buke B, Divrikli U, Soylak M, Elci L (2009) On-line preconcentration of copper as its pyrocatechol violet complex on Chromosorb 105 for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. J Hazard Mater 163:1298.
 
51.
Mashhadizadeh M H, Pesteh M, Talakesh M, Sheikhshoaie I, Ardakani M M, Karimi M A (2008) Solid phase extraction of copper(II) by sorption on octadecyl silica membrane disk modified with a new Schiff base and determination with atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta Part B 63:885.
 
52.
Castro Martha T P O, Baccan N (2005) Application of factorial design in optimization of preconcentration procedure for copper determination in soft drink by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 65:1264.
 
53.
Tobiasz A, Walas S, Trzewik B, Grzybek P, Zaitz M M, Gawin M, Mrowiec H (2009) Cu(II)-imprinted styrene–divinylbenzene beads as a new sorbent for flow injection-flame atomic absorption determination of copper. Microchem J 93:87.
 
54.
Gonzales A P S, Firmino M A, Nomura C S, Rocha F R P, Oliveira P V, Gaubeur I (2009) Peat as a natural solid-phase for copper preconcentration and determination in a multicommuted flow system coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta 636:198.
 
55.
Ghaedi M, Shabani R, Shokrollahi A, Montazerozohori M, Sahraiean A, Soylak M (2009) Preconcentration and separation of trace amount of copper (II) on N1, N2-bis(4-fluorobenzylidene)ethane-1,2-diamine loaded on Sepabeads SP70. J Hazard Mater 170:169.
 
56.
Soylak M, Ercan O (2009) Selective separation and preconcentration of copper (II) in environmental samples by the solid phase extraction on multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Hazard Mater 168:1527.
 
eISSN:1306-3057