RESEARCH PAPER
Evaluation Effect of Probiotic Cream in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation Model in Male Rat Hind Paw
 
More details
Hide details
1
Dept. of Food & Drug control, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IRAN
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IRAN
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, IRAN
Online publication date: 2018-04-16
Publication date: 2018-04-16
 
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2018;13(3):em30
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Inflammation is the first biological response produced by immune system against any infections or foreign allergen in order to protect the body. The main anti-inflammatory drugs that are used today are Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids, and corticosteroids. Despite the broad range of uses of these drugs, many side effects have been associated with their use such as digestive problems like ulcers and peptic bleeding. It has been suggested that products containing probiotics can be used as an effective anti-inflammatory drug, due to effects of Probiotics on immune responses such as reducing the inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we aim to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics and to compare the effect with commonly used drugs such as Piroxicam and Calandula in an animal model.

Method:
In this experimental study, after preparation of topical probiotic cream, used Wistar male rats weighing 180-200 g were used and randomly divided into 6 groups; negative control, positive control (piroxicam & calandula) and 3 treatment groups (2%, 4% and 8% w/w of LPE). Three groups, each received different doses (2%, 4% and 8% w/w) of LPE cream by topical use was 30 minutes before injecting carrageenan into plantar side of hind paw of the rats. Piroxicam gel and Calandula ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. Finally, to observe the anti-inflammatory effect, the rat paw edema was measured every 15 min in the first hour and then hourly for 5 hours. In the end, the volume of intact rat ҆s paw was measured in all groups by using plethysmometer. In the study, the IL-6 levels was measured by the ELIZA method.

Result:
All groups under the administration of the probiotic extract of Lactobacillus Casei compared to the negative control group in the rat paw edema show significant difference (P<0.05). Dose 2% LPE (Lyophilized cell free Probiotic Extract), turned out to be less effective than 2% Piroxicam cream in reducing edema during the study. But there was no significant difference between the group receiving doses of 4% and 8% w/w. The 4% dose of LPE cream was selected as the most favorable. These effects may be due, at least in part, to the pro-inflammatory cytokine production of IL-6 and TNFα. Also, all the groups under the administration of probiotic extract of Lactobacillus Casei were compared to the Calandula Officinalis group in the male rat paw and it was seen that there was no significant difference between them.

Conclusion:
The results of this study showed that LPE cream can improve inflammation effects in hand paw edema.

 
REFERENCES (34)
1.
Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster JC. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Professional Edition E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014 Aug 27.
 
2.
Saha A, Ahmed M. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract of Albizia lebbeck in animal model. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2009 Jan 1;22(1).
 
3.
Grice EA, Segre JA. The skin microbiome. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2011 Apr 1;9(4):244-53. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicr....
 
4.
Grice EA. The skin microbiome: potential for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cutaneous disease. InSeminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery 2014 Jun 1 (Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 98-103). Frontline Medical Communications.
 
5.
Cinque B, La Torre C, Melchiorre E, Marchesani G, Zoccali G, Palumbo P, Di Marzio L, Masci A, Mosca L, Mastromarino P, Giuliani M. Use of probiotics for dermal applications. In Probiotics 2011 (pp. 221-241). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
 
6.
Vane JR. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs. Nature. 1971 Jun 23;231(25):232-5. https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio....
 
7.
Adebayo D, Bjarnason I. Is non-steroidal anti-inflammaory drug (NSAID) enteropathy clinically more important than NSAID gastropathy? Postgraduate medical journal. 2006 Mar 1;82(965):186-91. https://doi.org/10.1136/pgmj.2....
 
8.
Lilly DM, Stillwell RH. Probiotics: growth-promoting factors produced by microorganisms. Science. 1965 Feb 12;147(3659):747-8. https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc....
 
9.
Fuller R. Probiotics in human medicine. Gut. 1991 Apr;32(4):439. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.32....
 
10.
Rembacken BJ, Snelling AM, Hawkey PM, Chalmers DM, Axon AT. Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli versus mesalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a randomised trial. The Lancet. 1999 Aug 21;354(9179):635-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-....
 
11.
Bibiloni R, Fedorak RN, Tannock GW, Madsen KL, Gionchetti P, Campieri M, De Simone C, Sartor RB. VSL# 3 probiotic-mixture induces remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2005 Jul 1;100(7):1539-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572....
 
12.
McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN, Elmer GW, Moyer KA, Melcher SA, Bowen KE, Cox JL. Prevention of b-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 1995;90(3):439-48.
 
13.
Shanahan F. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel disease: is there a scientific rationale?. Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2000 May 1;6(2):107-15. https://doi.org/10.1097/000547....
 
14.
Holma R, Kekkonen RA, Hatakka K, Poussa T, Vaarala O, Adlercreutz H, Korpela R. Consumption of Galactooligosaccharides together with Probiotics Stimulates the In Vitro Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Proliferation and IFNγ Production in Healthy Men. ISRN Immunology. 2011 Nov 30;2011.
 
15.
Vanderhoof JA. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2001 Nov 1;139(5):750.
 
16.
Chen YE, Tsao H. The skin microbiome: current perspectives and future challenges. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2013 Jul 31;69(1):143-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad....
 
17.
Barton BE. IL-6: insights into novel biological activities. Clinical immunology and immunopathology. 1997 Oct 1;85(1):16-20. https://doi.org/10.1006/clin.1....
 
18.
Saadatzadeh A, Fazeli MR, Jamalifar H, Dinarvand R. Probiotic properties of Lyophilized cell free extract of Lactobacillus casei. Jundishapur journal of natural pharmaceutical products. 2013 Aug;8(3):131. https://doi.org/10.17795/jjnpp....
 
19.
Francois M, Snoeckx E, Putteman P, Wouters F, De Proost E, Delaet U, Peeters J, Brewster ME. A mucoadhesive, cyclodextrin-based vaginal cream formulation of itraconazole. The AAPS Journal. 2003 Mar 1;5(1):50-4. https://doi.org/10.1208/ps0501....
 
20.
Ruiz MA, Arias JL, Gallardo V. Skin creams made with olive oil. In Olives and olive oil in health and disease prevention 2010 (pp. 1133-1141). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0....
 
21.
Moghimipour E, Ameri A, Saudatzadeh A, Salimi A. Formulation of an anti-dermatophyte cream from hydro-alcoholic extract of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products. 2009;4(1):32-40.
 
22.
Karska-Wysocki B, Bazo M, Smoragiewicz W. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Microbiological research. 2010 Oct 20;165(8):674-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micr....
 
23.
Wang JP, Zhou YM, Ye YJ, Shang XM, Cai YL, Xiong CM, Wu YX, Xu HX. Topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of kirenol isolated from Siegesbeckia orientalis. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1089-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.....
 
24.
Arzi A, Olapour S, Yaghooti H, Karampour NS. Effect of Royal Jelly on Formalin Induced-Inflammation in Rat Hind Paw. Jundishapur journal of natural pharmaceutical products. 2015 Feb;10(1). https://doi.org/10.17795/jjnpp....
 
25.
Arzi A, Sistani Karampour N, Geravand H. The Comparison of Preventive Effect of Apium Graveolens Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous Extract on Formalin-Induced Inflammation in Male Rat Hind Paw. Jundishapur Scientific Medical Journal. 2016;15(5):497-506.
 
26.
Arzi A, Karampour NS, Rezaei A, Gholamhoseyni A. Histopathological Study of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Terminalia catappa Leaves in Treatment of Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products (In Press). https://doi.org/10.17795/jjnpp....
 
27.
Fu KY, Light AR, Maixner W. Long-lasting inflammation and long-term hyperalgesia after subcutaneous formalin injection into the rat hindpaw. The Journal of Pain. 2001 Feb 28;2(1):2-11. https://doi.org/10.1054/jpai.2....
 
28.
Reuter BK, Davies NM, Wallace JL. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy in rats: role of permeability, bacteria, and enterohepatic circulation. Gastroenterology. 1997 Jan 31;112(1):109-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-....
 
29.
Harish K, Varghese T. Probiotics in humans–evidence based review. Calicut Med J. 2006;4(4):e3.
 
30.
Vinegar R, Schreiber W, Hugo R. Biphasic development of carrageenin edema in rats. Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1969 Mar 1;166(1):96-103.
 
31.
Vinderola G, Matar C, Palacios J, Perdigón G. Mucosal immunomodulation by the non-bacterial fraction of milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus R389. International journal of food microbiology. 2007 Apr 30;115(2):180-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfo....
 
32.
Aubuchon ED. Survival of freeze-dried probiotics in soy protein powder (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri--Columbia).
 
33.
Vega-Mercado H, Góngora-Nieto MM, Barbosa-Cánovas GV. Advances in dehydration of foods. Journal of food engineering. 2001 Sep 30;49(4):271-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-....
 
34.
Kasai T, Inada K, Takakuwa T, Yamada Y, Inoue Y, Shimamura T, Taniguchi S, Sato S, Wakabayashi G, Endo S. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in patients with septic shock. Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology. 1997 Oct;98(1):34-42.
 
eISSN:1306-3057