Flow Injection Analysis with Atomic Spectrometric Detection (Review Article)
 
More details
Hide details
1
National Center of Metrology, Bulgarian Institute of Metrology, G. M. Dimitrov Blvd 52 B, 1040 Sofia, Bulgaria
2
Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Acad. G. Bontchev str. Bl. 11, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Elisaveta Ivanova   

Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Acad. G. Bontchev str. Bl. 11, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
Online publication date: 2008-03-01
Publication date: 2008-03-01
 
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2008;3(2):183–211
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
The combination of flow injection analysis with atomic spectrometry has considerably extended the capabilities of conventional atomic spectrometric methods in terms of efficiency, sensitivity, economy and freedom from interferences. These improvements are mostly related to the on-line sample pretreatment and the possibility of micro-sample introduction in the detection device. The basic concepts of flow injection analysis; the basic components of the flow injection manifold as well as the main applications of flow injection analysis are presented. Special emphasis is put on the coupling of flow injection analysis with detection devices based on atomic spectrometry – flame atomic absorption spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The possibilities and the restrictions of the separate combinations are discussed. Examples are given for the on-line flow injection separation/preconcentration-atomic spectrometric determination of a large variety of elements at trace- and ultra-trace levels in samples of complex matrix composition.
 
REFERENCES (143)
1.
 
2.
Ruzicka J, Hansen E H (1975) Flow injection analyses : Part I. A new concept of fast continuous flow analysis. Anal Chim Acta, 78: 145.
 
3.
 
4.
Fang Z (1995) Flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry, Jonh Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
 
5.
Ruzicka J, Hansen E H (1988) Flow injection analysis, Second edition, Jonh Wiley & Sons, New York.
 
6.
Ruzicka J (1994) Tutorial review. Discovering flow injection: journey from sample to a live cell and from solution to suspension. Analyst, 119: 1925.
 
7.
Sanz-Medel A, Ed (1999) Flow analysis with atomic spectrometric detectors, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
 
8.
Willie S N, Lam J W H, Yang L, Tao G (2001) On-line removal of Ca, Na and Mg from iminodiacetate resin for the determination of trace elements in seawater and fish otoliths by flow injection ICP-MS. Anal Chim Acta, 447: 143.
 
9.
Burguera J L, Burguera M, Rondon C (2002) An on-line flow-injection microwave-assisted mineralization and a precipitation/dissolution system for the determination of molybdenum in blood serum and whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta, 58:1167.
 
10.
Silva E C, Araújo M C U, Honorato R S, Lima J L F C, Zagatto E A G, Brienza S M B (1996) Standard additions in flow injection analysis based on merging zones and gradient exploitation: application to copper determination in spirits. Anal Chim Acta, 319: 153.
 
11.
Welz B (1992) Flow-injection on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration and separation for flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchem J, 45: 163.
 
12.
Pereira M G, Arruda M A Z (2003) Trends in preconcentration procedures for metal determination using atomic spectrometry techniques. Microchim Acta 141: 115.
 
13.
Nord L, Karlberg B (1981) An automated extraction system for flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta, 125: 199.
 
14.
Tao G, Fang Z (1995) On-line flow injection solvent extraction for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Determination of nickel in biological samples. Spectrochim Acta Part B, 50: 1747.
 
15.
Nielsen S C, Stürup S, Spliid H, Hansen E H (1999) Selective flow injection analysis of ultra-trace amounts of Cr(VI), preconcentration of it by solvent extraction, and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Talanta, 49: 1027.
 
16.
Martinez-Jimenez P, Gallego M, Valcarcel M, (1987) Analytical potential of continuous precipitation in flow injection-atomic absorption configurations. Anal Chem, 59: 69.
 
17.
Fang Z, Sperling M, Welz B (1991) Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead in biological samples using a flow injection system with on-line preconcentration by coprecipitation without filtration. J Anal At Spectrom, 6: 301.
 
18.
Yan X -P, Kerrich R, Hendry M J (1999) Flow injection on-line group preconcentration and separation of (ultra)trace rare earth elements in environmental and geological samples by precipitation using a knotted reactor as a filterless collector for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric determination. J Anal At Spectrom, 14: 215.
 
19.
Burguera J L, Burguera M, Rondân C, Carrero P, Brunetto M. R, Petit de Peäa Y (2000) Determination of beryllium in natural and waste waters using on-line flow-injection preconcentration by precipitation/dissolution for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta, 52: 27.
 
20.
Sant’Ana O D, Wagener A L R, Santelli R E, Cassella R J, Gallego M, Valcãrcel M (2002) Precipitation–dissolution system for silver preconcentration and determination by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta, 56: 673.
 
21.
Chen H H, Beauchemin D (2001) Determination of trace metals in saline water using flow injection on-line precipitation coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 16: 1356.
 
22.
Martinez-Jimånez P, Gallego M, Valcãrcel M (1987) Pre-concentration and determination of trace amounts of lead in water by continuous precipitation in an unsegmented-flow atomic absorption spectrometric system. Analyst, 112: 1233.
 
23.
Chen H, Xu S, Fang Z (1995) Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of molybdenum in water, human hair and high-purity reagents with flow injection on-line coprecipitation preconcentration. J Anal At Spectrom, 10: 533.
 
24.
Nielsen S, Sloth J J, Hansen E H (1996) Determination of ultra-trace amounts of arsenic(III) by flow-injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with online preconcentration by coprecipitation with lanthanum hydroxide or hafnium hydroxide. Talanta, 43: 867.
 
25.
Nielsen S, Sloth J J, Hansen E H (1996) Determination of ultra-trace amounts of selenium(IV) by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with online preconcentration by co-precipitation with lanthanum hydroxide. Part II. On-line addition of co-precipitating agent. Analyst, 121: 31.
 
26.
Welz B, Xu S, Sperling M (1991) Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, cobalt, and nickel in biological samples using a flow injection system with online preconcentration by co-precipitation without filtration. Appl Spectrosc, 45: 1433.
 
27.
Chen H, Jin J, Wang Y (1997) Flow injection on-line coprecipitation-preconcentration system using copper(II) diethyldithiocarbamate as carrier for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, lead and nickel in environmental samples. Anal Chim Acta, 353: 181.
 
28.
Liu J, Chen H, Mao X, Jin X (2000) determination of trace copper, lead, cadmium, and iron in environmental and biological samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry coupled to flow injection on-line coprecipitation preconcentration using DDTC-nickel as coprecipitate carrier. Intern J Environ Anal Chem, 76: 267.
 
29.
Zhuang Z, Wang X, Yang P, Yang C, Huang B (1994) On-line flow injection cobalt– ammonium pyrrolidin-1-yldithioformate coprecipitation for preconcentration of trace amounts of metals in waters with simultaneous determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 9: 779.
 
30.
Wang J, Hansen E H (2003) On-line sample-pre-treatment schemes for trace-level determinations of metals by coupling flow injection or sequential injection with ICP-MS. Trends Anal Chem, 22: 836.
 
31.
Karami H, Mousavi M F, Yamini Y, Shamsipur M (2004) On-line preconcentration and simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta, 509: 89.
 
32.
Tony K A, Kartikeyan S, Vijayalakshmy B, Rao T P, Iyer C S P (1999) Flow injection online preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of iron, cobalt, nickel, manganese and zinc in sea-water. Analyst, 124: 191.
 
33.
Ali A, Ye Y, Xu G, Yin X (1999) Copper determination after FI on-line sorbent preconcentration using 1-nitroso-2-naphthol as a complexing reagent. Fresenius’ J Anal Chem, 365: 642.
 
34.
Pozebon D, Dressler V L, Curtius A J (2001) Comparison of the performance of FI-ICPMS and FI-ETV-ICP-MS systems for the determination of trace elements in sea water. Anal Chim Acta, 438: 215.
 
35.
Dressler V L, Pozebon D, Curtius A J (1998) Determination of heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after on-line separation and preconcentration. Spectrochim Acta, Part B, 53: 1527.
 
36.
Dressler V L, Pozebon D, Curtius A J (2001) Determination of Ag, Te, U and Au in waters and in biological samples by FI–ICP-MS following on-line preconcentration. Anal Chim Acta, 438: 235.
 
37.
Moldovan M, Gómez M M, Palacios M A (2003) On-line preconcentration of palladium on alumina microcolumns and determination in urban waters by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta, 478: 209.
 
38.
Haji Shabani A M, Dadfarnia S, Dehghan K (2003) On-line preconcentration and determination of cobalt by chelating microcolumns and flow injection atomic spectrometry. Talanta, 59: 719.
 
39.
Dadfarnia S, Haji Shabani A M, Gohari M (2004) Trace enrichment and determination of silver by immobilized DDTC microcolumn and flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta, 64: 682.
 
40.
Baena J R, Gallego M, Valcarcel M (2002) Fullerenes in the analytical sciences. Trends Anal Chem 21: 187.
 
41.
Petit de Peña Y, Gallego M, Valcárcel M (1997) Fullerene: a sensitive and selective sorbent for the continuous preconcentration and atomic absorption determination of cadmium. J Anal At Spectrom, 12: 453.
 
42.
Muñoz J, Baena J R, Gallego M, Valcárcel M (2002) Development of a method for the determination of inorganic cadmium and cadmium metallothioneins in fish liver by continuous preconcentration on fullerene and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 17: 716.
 
43.
Lásztity A, Kelkó-Lévai Á, Zih-Perényi K, Varga I (2003) Flow-injection preconcentration and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of platinum. Talanta, 59: 393.
 
44.
Zih-Perényi K, Lásztity A, Horváth Z, Lévai Á (1998) Use of a new type of 8- hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid cellulose (sulphoxine cellulose) for the preconcentration of trace metals from highly mineralised water prior their GFAAS determination. Talanta, 47: 673.
 
45.
Anthemidis A. N, Zachariadis G A, Stratis J A (2001) On-line solid phase extraction system using PTFE packed column for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper in water samples. Talanta, 54: 935.
 
46.
Yang L, Hu B, Jiang Z, Pan H (2004) On-line separation and preconcentration of trace metals in biological samples using a microcolumn loaded with PAN-modified nanometersized titanium dioxide, and their determination by ICP-AES. Microchim Acta, 144: 227.
 
47.
Cassella R J, Bitencourt D T, Branco A G, Ferreira S L C, De Jesus D S, De Carvalho M S, Santelli R E (1999) On-line preconcentration system for flame atomic absorption spectrometry using unloaded polyurethane foam: determination of zinc in waters and biological materials. J Anal At Spectrom, 14: 1749.
 
48.
Anthemidis A N, Zachariadis G A, Stratis J A (2002) On-line preconcentration and determination of copper, lead and chromium(VI) using unloaded polyurethane foam packed column by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in natural waters and biological samples. Talanta, 58: 831.
 
49.
Lemos V A, de la Guardia M, Ferreira S L C (2002) An on-line system for preconcentration and determination of lead in wine samples by FAAS. Talanta, 58: 475.
 
50.
Taylor D B, Kingston H M, Nogay D J, Koller D, Hutton K (1996) On-line solid-phase chelation for the determination of eight metals in environmental waters by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 11: 187.
 
51.
Hirata S, Ishida Y, Aihara M, Honda K, Shikino O (2001) Determination of trace metals in seawater by on-line column preconcentration inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta, 438: 205.
 
52.
Vassileva E, Furuta N (2003) Application of iminodiacetate chelating resin muromac A-1 in on-line preconcentration and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy determination of trace elements in natural waters. Spectrochim Acta, Part B, 58: 1541.
 
53.
Ellis L A, Roberts D J (1998) Determination of copper, cadmium, manganese and lead in saline water with flow injection and atom trapping atomic absorption spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 13: 631.
 
54.
Fernández F M, Tudino M B, Troccoli O E (2000) Automatic on-line ultratrace determination of Cd species of environmental significance in natural waters by FI-ETAAS. J Anal At Spectrom, 15: 687.
 
55.
Willie S N, Sturgeon R E (2001) Determination of transition and rare earth elements in seawater by flow injection inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta, Part B, 56: 1707.
 
56.
Su X, Wang M, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Zhang H, Jin Q (2001) Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of some noble metals using flow injection on-line clean-up. J Anal At Spectrom, 16: 1341.
 
57.
Packer A P, Gine M. F, Miranda C E S, Dos Reis B F (1997) Automated on-line preconcentration for trace metals determination in water samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 12: 563.
 
58.
Yang L, Sturgeon R E (2002) On-line determination of silver in sea-water and marine sediment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 17: 88.
 
59.
Sweileh J A, El-Nemma E M (2004) On-line elimination of spectral interference of iron matrix in the flame atomic absorption determination of zinc by anion-exchange separation. Anal Chim Acta, 523: 287.
 
60.
Fang Z L, Xu S K, Dong L P, Li W Q (1994) Determination of cadmium in biological materials by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with flow-injection on-line sorption preconcentration. Talanta, 41: 2165.
 
61.
Yan X P, Jiang Y (2001) Flow injection on-line preconcentration and separation coupled with atomic (mass) spectrometry for trace element (speciation) analysis based on sorption of organo-metallic complexes in a knotted reactor. Trends Anal Chem, 20: 552.
 
62.
Yan X P, Adams F (1997) Flow-injection online sorption separation and preconcentration with a knotted reactor for electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of lead in biological and environmental samples. J Anal At Spectrom, 12: 459.
 
63.
Chen H W, Xu S K, Fang Z L (1994) Determination of copper in water and rice samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with flow-injection on-line adsorption preconcentration using a knotted reactor. Anal Chim Acta, 298: 167.
 
64.
Chen S Y, Zhang Z F, Yu H M (2002) Dithione as chelator in the flow injection separation and pre-concentration system of trace metals in biological samples. Anal Chim Acta, 451: 305.
 
65.
Li Y, Jiang Y, Yan X P (2004) Further study on a flow injection on-line multiplexed sorption preconcentration coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for trace element determination. Talanta, 64: 758.
 
66.
Li Y, Jiang Y, Yan X P, Peng W J, Wu Y Y (2002) A flow injection on-line multiplexed sorption preconcentration procedure coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of trace lead in water, tea, and herb medicines. Anal Chem, 74: 1075.
 
67.
Sperling M, Yan X P, Welz B (1996) Investigation of on-line coupling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with flow injection sorption preconcentration using a knotted reactor for totally automatic determination of lead in water samples. Spectrochim Acta, Part B, 51: 1891.
 
68.
Yan X P, Van Mol W, Adams F (1996) Determination of (ultra)trace amounts of antimony(III) in water by flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration in a knotted reactor coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Analyst, 121: 1061.
 
69.
Yan X P, Kerrich R, Hendry M J (1998) Determination of (ultra)trace amounts of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) in water by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration and separation in a knotted reactor. Anal Chem, 70: 4736.
 
70.
Benkhedda K, Ivanova E, Adams F (1999) Flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration of trace amounts of copper and manganese in a knotted reactor precoated with 1-phenyl- 3-methyl-4-benzoylpyrazol-5-one coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 14: 957.
 
71.
Yan X P, Li Y, Jiang Y (2002) A flow injection on-line displacement/sorption preconcentration and separation technique coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of trace copper in complicated matrices. J Anal At Spectrom, 17: 610.
 
72.
Salonia J A, Wuilloud R G, Gasquez J A, Olsina R A, Martinez L D (1999) Determination of lead in tap water by ICP-AES with flow-injection on-line adsorption preconcentration using a knotted reactor and ultrasonic nebulization. J Anal At Spectrom, 14: 1239.
 
73.
Yan X P, Van Mol W, Adams F (1997) Flow-injection on-line sorption preconcentration in a knotted reactor for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of ultratrace amounts of cobalt in natural waters. Lab Rob Autom, 9: 191.
 
74.
Ivanova E, Yan X P, Van Mol W, Adams F (1997) determination of thallium in river sediment by flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration in a knotted reactor coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Analyst, 122: 667.
 
75.
Nielsen S C, Hansen E H (2000) Interfacing flow injection analysis (sequential injection analysis) and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry determination of trace-levels of Cr(VI) via on-line pre-concentration by adsorption in a knotted reactor and by liquid– liquid extraction. Anal Chim Acta, 422: 47.
 
76.
Som-Aum W, Liawruangrath S, Hansen E H (2002) Flow injection on-line preconcentration of low levels of Cr(VI) with detection by ETAAS: Comparison of using an open tubular PTFE knotted reactor and a column reactor packed with PTFE beads. Anal Chim Acta, 463: 99.
 
77.
Ivanova E, Adams F (1998) Flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration of platinum in a knotted reactor coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Fresenius' J Anal Chem, 361: 445.
 
78.
Yan X P, Hendry M J, Kerrich R (2000) Speciation of dissolved iron(III) and iron(II) in water by on-line coupling of flow injection separation and preconcentration with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anal Chem, 72: 1879.
 
79.
Ivanova E, Benkhedda K, Adams F (1998) Determination of copper, manganese and nickel in biological samples and sea-water by flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration in a knotted reactor coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 13: 527.
 
80.
Benkhedda K, Infante H G, Ivanova E, Adams F (2000) Ultratrace determination of cobalt in natural waters by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using flowinjection on-line sorption preconcentration in a knotted reactor precoated with 1-phenyl-3- methyl-benzoylpyrazol-5-one. J Anal At Spectrom, 15: 429.
 
81.
Benkhedda K, Infante H G, Ivanova E, Adams F (2000) Trace metal analysis of natural waters and biological samples by axial inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (ICP-TOFMS) with flow injection on-line adsorption preconcentration using a knotted reactor. J Anal At Spectrom, 15: 1349.
 
82.
Ivanova E, Yan X P, Adams F (1997) Determination of bismuth in cod muscle, lake and river sediment by flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration in a knotted reactor coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta, 354: 7.
 
83.
Ivanova E, Van Mol W, Adams F (1998) Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium and lead in blood using flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration in a knotted reactor. Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 53: 1041.
 
84.
Tsakovski S, Benkhedda K, Ivanova E, Adams F (2002) Comparative study of 8- hydroxyquinoline derivatives as chelating reagents for flow-injection preconcentration of cobalt in a knotted reactor. Anal Chim Acta, 453: 143.
 
85.
Benkhedda K, Infante H G, Ivanova E, Adams F (2001) Determination of sub-partsper-trillion levels of rare earth elements in natural waters by inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry after flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration in a knotted reactor. J Anal At Spectrom, 16: 995.
 
86.
Benkhedda K, Infante H G, Ivanova E, Adams F (2000) Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cobalt in biological samples and natural waters using a flow injection system with on-line preconcentration by ion-pair adsorption in a knotted reactor. Fresenius' J Anal Chem, 368: 288.
 
87.
Nielsen S, Hansen E H (1998) Selective flow-injection quantification of ultra-trace amounts of Cr(VI) via on-line complexation and preconcentration with APDC followed by determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta, 366: 163.
 
88.
Soylak M, Saracoglu S, Divrikli U, Elci L (2005) Coprecipitation of heavy metals with erbium hydroxide for their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations in environmental samples. Talanta, 66: 1098.
 
89.
Taylor A, Branch S, Halls D, Patriarca M, White M (2004) Atomic spectrometry update. Clinical and biological materials, foods and beverages. J Anal At Spectrom, 19: 505.
 
90.
Tibben M M, Rademaker-Lakhai J M, Rice J R, Stewart D R, Schellens J H M, Beijnen J H (2002) Determination of total platinum in plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate, from subjects dosed with the platinum-containing N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer AP5280, by use of graphite-furnace Zeeman atomic-absorption spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem, 373: 233.
 
91.
Lemos V A, Gama E M, Lima A S (2006) on-line preconcentration and determination of cadmium, cobalt and nickel in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a new functionalized resin. Microchim Acta, 153: 179.
 
92.
Lemos V A, Vieira D R, Novaes C G, Rocha M E, Santos M S, Yamaki R T (2006) Preconcentration systems using polyurethane foam/Me-BDBD for determination of copper in food samples. Microchim Acta, 153: 193.
 
93.
Orsi R F, Wuilloud R G, de Wuilloud J C A, Olsina R A, Martinez L D (2002) On-line preconcentration and determination of cadmium in honey using knotted reactor coupled to flow injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J AOAC Int, 85: 1410.
 
94.
Ndung’u K, Hibdon S, Flegal A R (2004) Determination of lead in vinegar by ICP-MS and GFAAS: evaluation of different sample preparation procedures. Talanta, 64: 258.
 
95.
Låvai A, Lãsztity A, Zih-Perånyi K, Horvãth Zs (1998) Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry determination and on-line preconcentration of palladium. Microchem J, 58: 272.
 
96.
Lãsztity A, Kelkâ-Låvai ç, Varga I, Zih-Perånyi K, Bertalan é (2002) Development of atomic spectrometric methods for trace metal analysis of pharmaceuticals. Microchem J, 73: 59.
 
97.
Ferreira A C, Korn M G A, Ferreira S L C (2004) Multivariate optimization in preconcentration procedure for manganese determination in seawater samples by FAAS. Microchim Acta, 146: 271.
 
98.
Akl M A A, Kenawy I M M, Lasheen R R (2004) Organically modified silica gel and flame atomic absorption spectrometry: employment for separation and preconcentration of nine trace heavy metals for their determination in natural aqueous systems. Microchem J, 78: 143.
 
99.
Narin I, Soylak M (2003) The uses of 1-(2-pyridylazo) 2-naphtol (PAN) impregnated Ambersorb 563 resin on the solid phase extraction of traces heavy metal ions and their determinations by atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta, 60: 215.
 
100.
Grotti M, Abelmoschi M L, Soggia F, Frache R (2003) Determination of ultratrace elements in natural waters by solid-phase extraction and atomic spectrometry methods. Anal Bioanal Chem, 375: 242.
 
101.
Grotti M, Abelmoschi M L, Soggia F, Frache R (2002) Determination of trace metals in sea-water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry following solid-phase extraction: quantification and reduction of residual matrix effects. J Anal At Spectrom, 17: 46.
 
102.
Ceccarini A, Cecchini I, Fuoco R (2005) Determination of trace elements in seawater samples by on-line column extraction/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchem J, 79: 21.
 
103.
Shemirani F, Baghdadi M, Ramezani K, Jamali M R (2005) Determination of ultra trace amounts of bismuth in biological and water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) after cloud point extraction. Anal Chim Acta, 534: 163.
 
104.
Matsumiya H, Kageyama T, Hiraide M (2004) Multielement preconcentration of trace heavy metals in seawater with an emulsion containing 8-quinolinol for graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta, 507: 209.
 
105.
Myohanen T, Mantylahti V, Koivunen K, Matilainen R, (2002) Simultaneous determination of As, Cd, Cr and Pb in aqua regia digests of soils and sediments using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and fast furnace programs. Spectrochim Acta, Part B, 57: 1681.
 
106.
Tuzen M (2003) Determination of heavy metals in soil, mushroom and plant samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchem J, 74: 289.
 
107.
Wang Y, Chen M L, Wang J H (2007) New developments in flow injection/sequential injection on-line separation and preconcentration coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for trace metal analysis. Appl Spectrosc Reviews, 42:103.
 
108.
Burguera M, Burguera J L (2007) On-line electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry configurations: recent developments and trends. Spectrochim Acta, Part B, 62: 884.
 
109.
Houk R S, Fassel V A, Flesch G D, Svec H J, Gray A I, Taylor C E (1980) Inductively coupled argon plasma as an ion source for mass spectrometric determination of trace elements. Anal Chem, 52: 2283.
 
110.
Sanz-Medel A (2000) Analytical atomic spectrometry going into the next millennium: photons or ions, atoms or molecules?. Analyst, 125: 35.
 
111.
Jiménez M S, Velarte R, Castillo J R (2002) Performance of different preconcentration columns used in sequential injection analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for multielemental determination in seawater. Spectrochim Acta, Part B, 57: 391.
 
112.
Batterham G J, Munksgaard N C, Parry D L (1997) Determination of trace metals in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after off-line dithiocarbamate solvent extraction. J Anal At Spectrom, 12: 1277.
 
113.
Jitaru P, Tirez K, De Brucker N (2003) Panoramic analysis for monitoring trace metals in natural waters by ICP-MS. At Spectrosc, 24: 1.
 
114.
Krachler M, Alimonti A, Petrucci F, Irgolic K J, Forastiere F, Caroli S (1998) Analytical problems in the determination of platinum-group metals in urine by quadrupole and magnetic sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta, 363: 1.
 
115.
Schramel P, Wendler I, Angerer J (1997) The determination of metals (antimony, bismuth, lead, cadmium, mercury, palladium, platinum, tellurium, thallium, tin and tungsten) in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 69: 219.
 
116.
Gammelgaard B, Jons O, Bendahl L (2001) Selenium speciation in pretreated human urine by ion-exchange chromatography and ICP-MS detection. J Anal At Spectrom, 16: 339.
 
117.
Begerow J, Turfeld M, Dunemann L (1997) Determination of physiological palladium, platinum, iridium and gold levels in human blood using double focusing magnetic sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom, 12: 1095.
 
118.
Taylor A, Branch S, Fisher A, Halls D, White M (2001) Atomic Spectrometry Update. Clinical and biological materials, foods and beverages. J Anal At Spectrom, 16: 421.
 
119.
Hann S, Koellensperger G, Kanitsar K, Stingeder G, Brunner M, Erovic B, Müller M, Reiter C (2003) Platinum determination by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) in different matrices relevant to human biomonitoring. Anal Bioanal Chem, 376: 198.
 
120.
Vacchina V, Torti L, Allievi C, Lobinski R (2003) Sensitive species-specific monitoring of a new triplatinum anti-cancer drug and its potential related compounds in spiked human plasma by cation-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS. J Anal At Spectrom, 18: 884.
 
121.
Bettinelli M (2005) ICP-MS determination of Pt in biological fluids of patients treated with antitumor agents: evaluation of analytical uncertainty. Microchem J, 79: 357.
 
122.
Castiäeira M M, Brandt R, Von Bohlen A, Jakubowski N (2001) Development of a procedure for the multi-element determination of trace elements in wine by ICP-MS. Fresenius' J Anal Chem, 370: 553.
 
123.
Almeida C M R, Vasconcelos M T S D, Barbaste M, Medina B (2002) ICP-MS multielement analysis of wine samples - a comparative study of the methodologies used in two laboratories. Anal Bioanal Chem, 374: 314.
 
124.
Cubadda F, Raggi A (2005) Determination of cadmium, lead, iron, nickel and chromium in selected food matrices by plasma spectrometric techniques. Microchem J, 79: 91.
 
125.
Krachler M, Mohl C, Emons H, Shotyk W (2002) Influence of digestion procedures on the determination of rare earth elements in peat and plant samples by USN-ICP-MS. J Anal At Spectrom, 17: 844.
 
126.
Djingova R, Heidenreich H, Kovacheva P, Markert B (2003) On the determination of platinum group elements in environmental materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and microwave digestion. Anal Chim Acta, 489: 245.
 
127.
Leśniewska B A, Godlewska-Zylkiewicz B, Bocca B, Caimi S, Caroli S, Hulanicki A (2004) Platinum, palladium and rhodium content in road dust, tunnel dust and common grass in Biaystok area (Poland): a pilot study. Sci Total Environ, 321: 93.
 
128.
Ponce de Leân C A, De Nicola K, Bayân M M, Caruso J A (2003) Sequential extractions of selenium soils from Stewart Lake: total selenium and speciation measurements with ICP-MS detection. J Environ Monit, 5: 435.
 
129.
Malinovsky D, Stenberg A, Rodushkin I, Andren H, Ingri J, êhlander B, Baxter D C (2003) Performance of high resolution MC-ICP-MS for Fe isotope ratio measurements in sedimentary geological materials. J Anal At Spectrom, 18: 687.
 
130.
Cicchella D, De Vivo B, Lima A (2003) Palladium and platinum concentration in soils from the Napoli metropolitan area, Italy: possible effects of catalytic exhausts. Sci Total Environ, 308: 121.
 
131.
Lewen N, Schenkenberger M, Larkin T, Conder S, Brittain H G (1995) The determination of palladium in fosinopril sodium (monopril) by ICP-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 13: 879.
 
132.
Ma R, Van Mol W, Adams F (1994) Selective flow injection sorbent extraction for determination of cadmium, copper and lead in biological and environmental samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta, 293: 251.
 
133.
Sperling M, Yin X, Welz B (1992) Differential determination of chromium(VI) and total chromium in natural waters using flow injection on-line separation and preconcentration electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Analyst, 117: 629.
 
134.
Sperling M, Yin X, Welz B (1991) low injection on-line separation and preconcentration for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Part 1. Determination of ultratrace amounts of cadmium, copper, lead and nickel in water samples. J Anal At Spectrom, 6: 295.
 
135.
Welz B, Sperling M, Sun X (1993) Analysis of high-purity reagents using automatic on-line column preconcentration-separation and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Fresenius’ J Anal Chem, 346: 550.
 
136.
Grobenski Z, Lehmann R, Radziuk B, Voellkopf U (1984) Determination of trace metals in seawater using zeeman graphite furnace AAS. At Spectrosc, 5: 87.
 
137.
Jimånez M S, Castillo J R (1997) Tandem preconcentration of cobalt by on-line ion exchange and gas phase chelates generated by merging-zones flow injection analysis with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination. J Anal At Spectrom, 12: 1397.
 
138.
U-5000AT+ Ultrasonic nebulizer/membrane desolvator operator’s manual, CETAC Technologies Inc., 1997.
 
139.
Thomas R (2001) A Beginner’s Guide to ICP-MS, Part II: The Sample-Introduction System. Spectroscopy, 16: 56.
 
140.
Brenner B, Zander A, Plantz M, Zhu J (1997) Characterization of an ultrasonic nebulizer–membrane separation interface with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace elements by solvent extraction. J Anal At Spectrom, 12: 273.
 
141.
Zheng F, Hu B (2007) Preparation of a high pH-resistant AAPTS-silica coating and its application to capillary microextraction (CME) of Cu, Zn, Ni, Hg and Cd from biological samples followed by on-line ICP-MS detection. Anal Chim Acta, 605: 1.
 
142.
Lopes C M P V, Almeida A A, Saraiva M L, Lima J L (2007) Determination of Rh, Pd and Pt in urine samples using a pre-concentration sequential injection analysis system coupled to a quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Anal Chim Acta 600: 226.
 
143.
Dimitrova-Koleva B, Benkhedda K, Ivanova E, Adams F (2007) Determination of trace elements in natural waters by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry after flow injection preconcentration in a knotted reactor. Talanta, 71: 44.
 
eISSN:1306-3057