Metals Determination by Microwave Digestion ICP-OES of Some Dietary Supplements and Diet Products in Turkey
More details
Hide details
Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, TURKEY
Hale Seçilmiş Canbay   

Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 15030 Burdur, Turkey
Online publication date: 2016-12-04
Publication date: 2016-12-04
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2016;(Special issue on UAKK8 Sp 1):45–53
Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis was applied to metals concenrations in ten samples of some dietary supplements and diet products in Turkey. The As, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Hg, Mn, Fe, Al and Cu contents of dietary supplements and diet products were determined using microwave digestion. The digestion method with acid mixture (HNO3 + HCl) was used to break down the organic material of dietary supplements and diet products. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of metals were Ni 3.34 ± 0.01 µg/g, Zn 41.24 ± 0.63 µg/g, Mn 23.27 ± 0.25 µg/g, Fe 221.10 ± 1.53 µg/g, Al 18.46 ± 0.14 µg/g and Cu 7.76 ± 0.15 µg/g for dietary supplements and diet products. The concentration of other metals and heavy metals was not found sufficiently. Based on the results obtained in the current work has sensitivity, and accuracy. Calibration curves showed a good linearity for all elements (R2>0.999). The quantitation limit ranged 2.5 to 5 µg/L in dietary supplements and diet products. Recoveries were in the range 92.12-102.08%. The results obtained form this study have shown good accuracy and reproducibility.
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmestic Act of 1938. Public Law, 75-717, 52 Stat 1040.
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. Public Law, 103-417, 108 Stat 4325.
Raman, P., Patino, L. C., & Nair, M. G. (2004). Evaluation of metal and microbial contamination in botanical supplements. J Agriculture Food Chemist, 52, 7822–7827. doi:10.1021/jf049150+.
Garcia-Rico, L., Leyva-Perez, J., & Jara-Marini, M. E. (2007). Content and daily intake of copper, zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury from dietary supplements in Mexico. Food Chem Toxicol, 45,1599–1605. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.02.027.
Report of the Commission on Dietary SupplementLabels. Washington, DC: Department of Healthand Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (1997). .gov/dietsupp/final.pdf.
Dietarysupplements: FDA may have opportunities to expandits use of reported health problems to over se eproducts (GAO-13-244). Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office. (2013).
Bailey, R. L., Gahche, J. J., Lentino, C.V ., Dwyer, J. T., Engel, J. S., Thomas, P. R., Betz, J. M., Sempos, C. T., & Picciano, M. F. (2011). Dietary supplement use in the United States, 2003-2006. J Nutr, 141, 261-266. doi:10.3945/jn.110.133025.
Szok, A. F., Kurzwa, M., Cichosz, M., & Szlyk, E. (2015). Elemental Analysis of Medicinal Herbsand Dietary Supplements. Analytical Letters, 48, 2626-2638. doi:10.1080/00032719.2015.1041031.
Mosby, C. V., Glanze, W. D., & Anderson, K. N. (1996). Mosby Medical Encyclopedia, The Signet: Revised Edition. St. Louis.
Jaben, S., Shah, M. T., Khan, S., & Hakat, M. Q. (2010). Determination of majorandtraceelements in ten important folk therapeuticplants of Haripurbasin, Pakistan. JMPR, 4, 559-566. doi:10.5897/JMPR10.015.
Seidal, K., Jorgensen, N., Elinder, C. G., Sjogren, B, & Vahter, M. (1993). Fatal cadmium-induced pneumonitis. Scand J Work Environ Health, 19, 429–431. doi:10.5271/sjweh.1450.
Barbee, Jr J.Y., & Prince, T. S. (1999). Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a welder exposed to metal fumes. South Med J, 92, 510–512. doi:10.1097/00007611-199905000-00012.
Järup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin, 68, 167–182. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldg032.
Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., & Mathew, B.B. (2014). Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol, 7, 60–72. doi:10.2478/intox-2014-0009.
Adeloju, S. B., & Young, T. M. (1995). Anodic stripping potentiometric determination of antimony in environmental materials. Anal Chim Acta, 302, 225–32. doi:10.1016/0003-2670(94)00452-r.
Łozak, A., K. Sołtyk, Ostapczuk, P., & Fijałek, Z. (2002). Determination of selected trace elements in herbs and their infusions. Sci Total Environ, 289, 33–40.doi:10.1016/s0048-9697(01)01015-4.
Adamo, P., S. Giordano, S. Vingiani, Cobianchi, R. C., & Violante, P. (2003). Trace element accumulation by moss and lichen exposed in bags in the city of Naples (Italy). Environmental Pollution, 122, 91–103. doi:10.1016/s0269-7491(02)00277-4.
Tüzen, M. (2003). Determination of heavy metals in soil, mushroom and plant samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchemical Journal, 74, 289–97. doi:10.1016/s0026-265x(03)00035-3.
Dolan, S. P., Nortrup, D. A., Bolger, P. M., & Capar, S. G. (2003). Analysis of Dietary Supplements for Arsenic, cadmium, Mercury, and Lead Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem, 51, 1307-1312. doi:10.1021/jf026055x.
Basgel, S., & Erdemoğlu, S. B. (2006). Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey. Sci Total Environ, 359, 82–9. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.04.016.
Kumar, A., Nair, A. G. C., Reddy, A. V. R., & Garg, A. N. (2007). Analysis of essential elements in Pragya-peya–a herbal drink and its constituents by neutron activation. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 37, 631–36. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2004.11.051.
Kauffman, J. F., Westenberger, B. J., Robertson, J. D., Guthrie, J., Jacobs, A., & Cummins, S. K. (2007). Lead in pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2007, 48, 128–134. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2007.03.001.
Aberoumand, A., Deokule, S. S. (2009). Determination of elements profile of some wild edible plants. Food Anal Methods, 2, 116–19. doi:10.1007/s12161-008-9038-z.
The American Herbal Products Association. (2009). Heavy Metals: Analysis and Limits in Herbal Dietary Supplements. 1-41.
Fei, T., D. Li, Z. Fengqun, L. Junhua, Hua, T., & Xiangzhong, K. (2010). Determination of trace elements in Chinese medicinal plants by instrumental neutron activation analysis. JRNC, 284, 507–511. doi:10.1007/s10967-010-0503-y.
Gjorgieva, D., T. Kadifkova-Panovska, Bačeva, K., & Stafilov, T. (2010). Content of toxic and essential metals in medicinal herbs growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of Macedonia. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, 61, 297–303. doi:10.2478/10004-1254-61-2010-2022.
Jabeen, S., M. T. Shah, S. Khan, & Hakat, M. Q. (2010). Determination of major and trace elements in ten important folk therapeutic plants of Haripur basin, Pakistan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4, 559–566.
Tumir, H., Bošnir, J., Dragun Z., Tomić, S., Puntarić, D., & Jurak, G. (2010). Monitoring metal and metalloid content in dietary supplements on the Croatian market. Food Control, 21, 885–889. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.12.005.
Jurca, T., Maiani, E., Braun, M., & Vicas, L. (2011). Metals Determination by Microwave Digestion ICP-OES of Some Supplements. Rev Chim (Bucharest), 62, 139-140.
Korfali, S. I., Hawi, T., & Mroueh, M. (2013). Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon. Chem Cent J, 7, 1-13. doi:10.1186/1752-153X-7-10.
Szymczycha-Madeja, A., Welna, M., & Zyrnicki, W. (2013). Multi-Element Analysis, Bioavailability and Fractionation of Herbal Tea Products. J Braz Chem Soc, 24, 777-787. doi:10.5935/0103-5053.20130102.
EPA 3051A, (1998). US Environmental Protection Agency Method 3051A. Microwave assisted acid digestion of sediments, sludges, soils, and oils.
Saltan, F. Z., & Secilmis Canbay, H. (2015). Determination of Heavy Metals and Nutrient Elements in Some Plants Medicinal Used in Eskişehir. SDU Journal of Natural and Applied Science, 19, 83-90.
Marcos A., Fisher G., Ree G., & Hill S. J. (1998). Preliminary study using trace element concentrations and a chemometrics approach to determine the geological origin of tea. J Anal Atomic Spectr, 113, 521–525. doi:10.1039/A708658J.
Srividhya, B., Subramanian, R., & Raj, V. (2011). Determination of Lead, Manganese, Copper, Zinc, Cadminium, Nickel and Chromium in Tea Leaves. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3, 257-258.