RESEARCH PAPER
Microbicide Action of IAA and IAA/HRP on Staphylococcus Aureus
 
More details
Hide details
1
University of São Paulo, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, Department of Basic Sciences, Pirassununga, SP, BRAZIL
Online publication date: 2018-09-16
Publication date: 2018-09-16
 
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2018;13(5):em53
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Action of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in absence and presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was evaluated on the virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus: biofilm producer; enterotoxins producer (seb-gene, SEB); methicillin resistance (mecA) and control-stain by: i) dose-response on microorganism growth and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by spectrophotometry at 625nm; ii) membrane damage by flow cytometry using fluorescence detector at 610nm and 530nm; iii) biofilm production by spectrophotometry at 570 nm; iii) antioxidant enzyme activity as catalase and superoxide dismutase by spectrophotometry at respective 240nm and 550nm. Dose-response on microorganism growth was seen and MIC by IAA alone was 40mM for biofilm, 50mM for SEB and control-stain, and 60mM for mecA; HRP potentiated the IAA action on biofilm, SEB and mecA. Subinhibitory IAA concentration increased membrane damage for only biofilm and control-strain; however in presence of HRP the injury was potentiate in all stains. Except for biofilm, all strains showed similar increase in catalase activity by IAA and IAA/HRP. Superoxide dismutase activity was similarly increased in presence of IAA and IAA/HRP for all stains. IAA alone or combined with HRP presents microbicide action on S. aureus with different pathological characteristics; probably involving reactive oxygen species since increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.
 
REFERENCES (40)
1.
Chessa D, Ganau G, Mazzarello V. An overview of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus with a focus on developing countries. Journal of infection in developing countries. 2015;9(6):547–550. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.6....
 
2.
Barsoumian AE, Mende K, Sanchez CJ, Beckius ML, Wenke JC, Murray CK, Akers KS. Clinical infectious outcomes associated with biofilm-related bacterial infections: a retrospective chart review. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2015;15(1):223. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879....
 
3.
Schelin J, Wallin-Carlquist N, Cohn MT, Lindqvist R, Barker GC, Rådström P. The formation of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin in food environments and advances in risk assessment. Virulence. 2011;2(6):580–592. https://doi.org/10.4161/viru.2....
 
4.
Purrello SM, Garau J, Giamarellos E, Mazzei T, Pea F, Soriano A, Stefani S. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: A review of the currently available treatment options. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance. 2016;7(4): 178–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar....
 
5.
Oliveira CJB, Tiao N, de Sousa FGC, de Moura JFP, Santos Filho L, Gebreyes WA. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Brazilian Dairy Farms and Identification of Novel Sequence Types. Zoonoses and public health. 2016;63(2): 97–105. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12....
 
6.
Lee JH, Cho MH, Lee J. 3-Indolylacetonitrile Decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 Biofilm Formation and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence. Environmental Microbiology. 2011;13(1):62–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462....
 
7.
Minvielle,MJ Eguren K, Melander C. Highly Active Modulators of Indole Signaling Alter Pathogenic Behaviors in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria. Chemistry-A European Journal. 2013;19(51):17595-17602. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.2....
 
8.
Pugine SMP, Piza T, Costa E, De Melo MP. Toxicity of indole-3-acetic acid combined with horseradish peroxidase on Staphylococcus aureus. webmedcentral, 2010;1(9): WMC00695.
 
9.
Cunha LT, Pugine SMP, Silva MRM, Costa EJX, De Melo MP. Microbicidal action of indole-3-acetic acid combined with horseradish peroxidase on Prototheca zopfii from bovine mastitis. Mycopathologia. 2010;169(2):99–105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046....
 
10.
Cunha LT, Pugine SMP, Lins PG, Brunetti IL, De Melo MP. Induction of Oxidative Stress in Prototheca zopfii by Indole-3-Acetic Acid/HRP or 2,4-Pentanedione/HRP Systems and Their Oxidation Products. Mycopathologia. 2015;179(1–2):73–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046....
 
11.
Kawano T, Kawano N, Hosoya H, Lapeyrie F. Fungal auxin antagonist hypaphorine competitively inhibits indole-3-acetic acid-dependent superoxide generation by horseradish peroxidase. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2001;288(3):546–551. https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.2....
 
12.
Vatansever F, de Melo WCMA, Avci P, Vecchio D, Sadasivam M, Gupta A, Chandran R, Karimi M, Parizotto NA, Yin R, Tegos GP, Hamblin MR. Antimicrobial strategies centered around reactive oxygen species - bactericidal antibiotics, photodynamic therapy, and beyond. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 2013;37(6):955–989. https://doi.org/10.1111/1574-6....
 
13.
Mourão LRMB, Santana RSS, Paulo LM, Pugine SMP, Chaible LM, Fukumasu H, Dagli MLZ, De Melo MP. Protective action of indole-3-acetic acid on induced hepatocarcinoma in mice. Cell Biochemistry and Function. 2009;27(1):16–22. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbf.15....
 
14.
McLaughlin RA, Hoogewerf AJ. Interleukin-1β-induced growth enhancement of Staphylococcus aureus occurs in biofilm but not planktonic cultures. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2006;41(2–3):67–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micp....
 
15.
Toté K, Vanden Berghe D, Maes L, Cos P. A new colorimetric microtitre model for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2008;46(2):249–254. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472....
 
16.
Sergeev N, Volokhov D, Chizhikov V, Rasooly A. Simultaneous Analysis of Multiple Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Genes by an Oligonucleotide Microarray Assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004;42(5):2134–2143. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.42....
 
17.
Kamboj DV, Nema V, Pandey AK, Goel AK, Singh L. Heterologous expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb) gene for antibody production. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;9(5):551–558. https://doi.org/10.2225/vol9-i....
 
18.
Nema V, Agrawal R, Kamboj DV, Goel AK, Singh L. Isolation and characterization of heat resistant enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus from a food poisoning outbreak in Indian subcontinent. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2007;117(1):29–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfo....
 
19.
Pocsfalvi G, Cacace G, Cuccurullo M, Serluca G, Sorrentino A, Schlosser G, Blaiotta G, Malorni A. Proteomic analysis of exoproteins expressed by enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains. Proteomics. 2008;8(12):2462–2476. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmic.2....
 
20.
Qiu J, Wang D, Xiang H, Feng H, Jiang Y, Xia L, Dong J, Lu J, Yu L, Deng X. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Thymol Reduce Enterotoxins A and B and α-Hemolysin Production in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates. Plos One. 2010;5(3):1–7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
 
21.
Reischl U, Linde HJ, Metz M, Leppmeier B, Lehn N. Rapid identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and simultaneous species confirmation using real-time fluorescence PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2000;38(6):2429–2433.
 
22.
Almer LS, Shortridge VD, Nilius AM, Beyer JM, Soni NB, Bui MH, Stone GG, Flamm RK. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 2002;43(3):225–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0732-....
 
23.
Palazzo ICV, Rehder A, Darini ALC. Quantitative disk diffusion as a convenient method for determining minimum inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin for staphylococci strains. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2007;71(3):186–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mime....
 
24.
Skov R, Smyth R, Yusof A, Karlsson A, Mills K, Frimodt-Moller N, Kahlmeter G. Effects of temperature on the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus using cefoxitin disc diffusion testing with Iso-Sensitest agar. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2009;63(4):699–703. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dk....
 
25.
Saiful AJ, Mastura M, Zarizal S, Mazurah MI, Shuhaimi M, Ali A M (2006). Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using mecA/nuc genes and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Malaysian clinical isolates. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2006;22(12):1289–1294. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274....
 
26.
De Melo MP, De Lima TM, Pithon-Curi TC, Curi R. The mechanism of indole acetic acid cytotoxicity. Toxicology Letters. 2004;148(1–2):103–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxl....
 
27.
Sarker SD, Nahar L, Kumarasamy Y. Microtitre plate-based antibacterial assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth, and its application in the in vitro antibacterial screening of phytochemicals. Methods. 2007;42(4):321–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymet....
 
28.
Christensen GD, Simpson WA, Younger JJ, Baddour LM, Barrett FF, Melton DM, Beachey EH. Adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to plastic tissue culture plates: a quantitative model for the adherence of staphylococci to medical devices. Journal of clinical microbiology. 1985;22(6):996–1006.
 
29.
Sträuber H, Müller S. Viability states of bacteria-Specific mechanisms of selected probes. Cytometry Part A. 2010;77(7):623–634. https://doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a....
 
30.
Beers RF, Sizer JW. A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1952;195(1):133–140.
 
31.
Beauchamp C, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase: Improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry. 1971;44(1):276–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2....
 
32.
Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry. 1976;72(1–2):248–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2....
 
33.
Folkes LK, Wardman P. Oxidative activation of indole-3-acetic acids to cytotoxic species - A potential new role for plant auxins in cancer therapy. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2001;61(2):129–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-....
 
34.
Sung WS, Lee DG. In vitro antimicrobial activity and the mode of action of indole-3-carbinol against human pathogenic microorganisms. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2007;30(10):1865–9. https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.30....
 
35.
Chitra G, Franklin DS, Sudarsan S, Sakthivel M, Guhanathan S. Indole-3-acetic acid/diol based pH-sensitive biological macromolecule for antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2017;95(2), 363-375.
 
36.
Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Terron MP, Flores LJ, Czarnocki Z. Melatonin and its metabolites: New findings regarding their production and their radical scavenging actions. Acta Biochimica Polonica 2007;54(1):1–9.
 
37.
Li N, Gao C, Peng X, Wang W, Luo M, Fu Y, Zu Y. Aspidin BB, a phloroglucinol derivative, exerts its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. Research in Microbiology. 2014;165(4), 263–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resm....
 
38.
Bukharin OV, Sgibnev AV, Cherkasov SV, Ivanov IB. The effect of the intra- and extracellular metabolites of microorganisms isolated from various ecotopes on the catalase activity of Staphylococcus aureus 6538P. Microbiology. 2002;71(2):183–186. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015....
 
39.
Bartolomeu M, Rocha S, Cunha Â, Neves MGPMS, Faustino MAF, Almeida A. Effect of Photodynamic Therapy on the Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus aureus. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2016;7(3):1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.....
 
40.
Donlan RM, Costerton JW, Donlan RM, Costerton JW. Biofilms : Survival Mechanisms of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2002;15(2):167–193. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.15....
 
eISSN:1306-3057