Particulate Emissions from High Temperature Pyrolysis of Cashew Nuts
 
More details
Hide details
1
Egerton University, KENYA
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Joshua Kibet   

Egerton University, P.O Box 536 – 20115, Kenya
Online publication date: 2016-12-15
Publication date: 2016-12-15
 
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2017;12(3):237–243
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
High temperature pyrolysis procedures of such foods as meat, cashew nuts, and coco beans are associated with bio-hazardous emissions that may be precursors for respiratory health problems including oxidative stress, cancer and lung damage. In this study, 20 mg of powdered cashew nuts was pyrolyzed in a quartz reactor system of volume ~ 1.6 cm3 at two different temperatures (500 ˚C and 700 ˚C) under 1 atmosphere pressure at a total pyrolysis time of 5 minutes. Particulate emissions were collected in amber vials and extracted using 2 mL dichloromethane through a porous tube diluter. To explore the surface morphology of particulate emissions, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used. Image J computer software was used to measure the size of particulate emissions while Igor graphical code was used to plot the size distribution curves of particulate emissions. Accordingly, it was found that the size of particulates was 13.41 ± 3.47µm at 500 ˚C and 12.44 ± 4.33µm at 700 ˚C. These particulates were approximately within the PM10 (10 microns) category of respirable particulates. The findings generated from this study are critical in understanding the potential health risks resulting from inhaling particulate emissions from high temperature cooking processes.
 
REFERENCES (17)
1.
Kamens, R., Lee, C. T., Wiener, R., & Leith, D. (1991). Characterize Indoor Particles in Three Non-smoking Homes. Atmosphere and environment, 25, 939–948.
 
2.
Carughi, A., Feeney, M. J., Kris-Etherton, P., Fulgoni, V., Kendall, C. W., Bulló, M., & Webb, D. (2016). Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health. Nutrition journal, 15(1), 1.
 
3.
Klempfner, R., Erez, A., Sagit, B. Z., Goldenberg, I., Fisman, E., Kopel, E., Shlomo, N., Israel, A., & Tenenbaum, A. (2016). Elevated Triglyceride Level Is Independently Associated With Increased All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Established Coronary Heart Disease Twenty-Two–Year Follow-Up of the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study and Registry. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 9(2), 100-108.
 
4.
Junjie, H., Huimin, M., Wenbing, Z., Zhiqing, Y., & Guoying, S. F. J. (2014). Effects of Benzene and Its Metabolites on Global DNA Methylation in Human Normal Hepatic L02 Cells. Environ Toxicol, 29, 108-116.
 
5.
Winkle, L. S. V., Chan, J. K. W., A., D. S., Benjamin, M. K., Ian, M. K., Anthony, S. W., Christopher, W., A., A. D., Katherine, M. S., & Fanucchi, M. V. (2010). Age specific responses to acute inhalation of diffusion flame soot particles: Cellular injury and the airway antioxidant response. Inhalation Toxicology, 107, 70–83.
 
6.
Squadrito, G. L., Cueto, R., Dellinger, B., & Pryor, W. A. (2001). Quinoid redox cycling as a mechanism for sustained free radical generation by inhaled airborne particulate matter. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 31(9), 1132-1138.
 
7.
Dellinger, B., Pryor, W. A., Cueto, R., Squadrito, G. L., Hegde, V., & Deutsch, W. A. (2001). Role of free radicals in the toxicity of airborne fine particulate matter. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 14(10), 1371-1377.
 
8.
Dellinger, B., Pryor, W. A., Cueto, R., Squadrito, G., & Deutsch, W. A. (2000). The role of combustion-generated radicals in the toxicity of PM2.5. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 28, 2675-2681.
 
9.
Mirowsky, J., Hickey, C., Horton, L., Blaustein, M., Galdanes, K., Peltier, R. E., Chillrud, S., Chen, L. C., Ross, J., & Nadas, A. et al. (2013). The effect of particle size, location and season on the toxicity of urban and rural particulate matter. Inhalation Toxicology, 13, 747-756.
 
10.
Pongjanta, J., Utaipatanacheep, A., Naivikul, O., & Piyachomkwan, K. (2008). Enzymes-resistant Starch (RS III) from Pullulanase-Debranched High Amylose Rice Starch. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci), 42, 198-205.
 
11.
Konert, M., & Vandenberghe, J. (1997). Comparison of laser grain size analysis with pipette and sieve analysis: a solution for the underestimation of the clay fraction. Sedimentology, 44(3), 523-535.
 
12.
Poynton, S. D., Slade, R. C. T., Omasta, T. J., Mustain, W. E., Escudero-Cid R, Oc´onb, P., & Varcoe, R. J. (2014). Preparation of radiation-grafted powders for use as anion exchange ionomers in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2, 5124-5130.
 
13.
Sharma, R. K., Wooten, J. B., Baliga, V. L., Martoglio-Smith, P. A., & Hajaligol, M. R. (2002). Characterization of char from the pyrolysis of tobacco. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(4), 771-783.
 
14.
Buonanno, G., Stabile, L., & Morawska, L. (2009). Particle emission factors during cooking activities. Atmospheric Environment, 20(43), 3235-3242.
 
15.
Ashmore, M., & Dimitroulopoulou, C. (2009). Personal exposure of children to air pollution. Atmospheric Environment, 43(1), 128-141.
 
16.
Abdullahi, K. L., Delgado-Saborit, J. M., & Harrison, R. M. (2013). Emissions and indoor concentrations of particulate matter and its specific chemical components from cooking: a review. Atmospheric Environment, 71, 260-294.
 
17.
Chaturvedi, A. K. (2010). Aviation Combustion Toxicology: An Overview. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 34, 3-16.
 
eISSN:1306-3057