Physicochemical Characterization of the Synthetic Lubricating Oils Degradation under the Effect of Vehicle Engine Operation
Soukayna Zzeyani 1, 2  
More details
Hide details
Laboratory of Systems Analysis and Information Processing, Hassan 1st University Faculty of Science and Technology, Settat, MOROCCO
Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment, Hassan 1st University Faculty of Science and Technology, Settat, MOROCCO
Online publish date: 2018-05-04
Publish date: 2018-05-04
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2018;13(4):em34
The degradation analysis of three categories the synthetic lubricating oils during operation of the vehicle engine was undertaken according the number of kilometers covered, using the evaluation of viscosity, basicity, pour point, flash point, formation of heavy metals from the engine abrasion phenomena, that will detect by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), and the differentiation of the chemical composition of virgin and degraded lubricating oil using gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These analyzes reveal the regular decrease of the viscosity, the basicity, the flash point and the significant evolution of the iron and lead content and the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, the important degradation of the additives tends to thicken the lubricating oil and consequently the continuous increase in the pour point.
1. Aucelio RQ, Roseli MS, Reinaldo CC, Miekeley N, Carmem LP. The determination of trace metals in lubricating oils by atomic spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2007;62:952.
2. Kamalakar K, Manoj GN, Prasad RB, Karuna MS. Influence of structural modification on lubricant properties of salfat-based lubricant base stocks. Industrial Crops and Products. 2015;76:456.
3. Zzeyani S, Mikou M, Naja J, Elachhab A. Spectroscopic analysis of synthetic lubricating oil. Tribology International. 2017;114:27.
4. Diaby M, Sablier M, Negrate A, El Fassi M, Bocquet J. Understanding carbonaceous deposit formation resulting from engine oil degradation. Carbon. 2009;47:355.
5. Al-Ghouti MA, Al-Atoum L. Virgin and recycled engine oil differentiation: A spectroscopic study. Journal of environmental management. 2009;90:187.
6. Trevelin MA, Rúbia ES, Eustáquio VR, Geisamanda PB, Ricardo JC, Carneiro MT. Extraction induced by emulsion breaking for determination of Ba, Ca, Mg and Na in crude oil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Microchemical Journal. 2016;124:338.
7. Brandenberger S, Mohr M, Grob K, Neukom HP. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars. Atmospheric Environment. 2005;39:6985.
8. Maricq M. Chemical characterization of particulate emissions from diesel engines: a review. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2007;38:1079.
9. Zeigler C, MacNamara K, Zhendi W, Robbat A. Total alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon characterization and quantitative comparison of selected ion monitoring versus full scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based on spectral deconvolution. Journal of Chromatography A. 2008;1205:109.
10. Frederik R, Sedman J, Cocciardi R, Juneau S. An automated FTIR method for the routine quantitative determination of moisture in lubricants: An alternative to Karl Fischer titration. Talanta. 2007;72:289.
11. Fernando L, et al. Application of the extraction induced by emulsion breaking for the determination of Cu, Fe and Mn in used lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta. 2013;110:21.
12. Nejjar K. Etude de la Réactivité Thermique d′une Huile de Lubrification des Moteurs Diesel. Mohamed V University. 2011;66:7. Retrieved from
13. Pranab G, Moumita D. Study of the influence of some polymeric additives as viscosity index improvers and pour point depressants – Synthesis and characterization. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2014;119:79.
14. Azim AA, Nasser AM, Ahmeh NS, El Kafrawy AF, Kamal RS. Multifunctional Additives Viscosity Index Improver, Pour Point Depressants and Dispersants for Lube Oil. Petrol. Sci. Technol. 2009;27:20.
15. Kalam MA, et al. Influences of thermal stability and lubrication performance of biodegradable oil as an engine oil for improving the efficiency of heavy duty diesel engine. Fuel. 2017;196:36.
16. Al-Sabagh AM, Sabaa MW, Saad GR, Khidr TT, Khalil TM. Synthesis of polymeric additives based on itaconic acid and their evaluation as pour point depressants for lube oil in relation to rheological flow properties. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum. 2012;21:19.
17. Briant J, Denis J, Parc G. Propriétés rhéologiques des lubrifiants. 1985. Retrieved from
18. Toivo K, Paavo P, Ilkka V, Rönkkömäki H. Determination of Heavy Metals in Waste Lubricating Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectrometry. Inter. J. of Envir. Anal. Chem. 2001;81:89.
19. Yuna K, Nam YK, Seh YP, Dong L, Hoon L. Classification and individualization of used engine oils using elemental composition and discriminant analysis. Foren. Sci. Inter. 2013;230:58.
20. Palus Z, Kościelniak P. An analysis of the similarity of motor oils on the basis of their elemental composition. Foren. Sci. Inter. 2000;112:81.
21. Diaby M, Kinani S, Genty C, Bouchonnet S, Sablier M, Negrate A, El FassI M. Analysis of the Volatile Organic Matter of Engine Piston Deposits by Direct Sample Introduction Thermal Desorption GC/MS. Anal. Chem. 2009;81:9764.
22. Fairburn JA, Behie LA, Svrcek WY. Ultrapyrolysis of n-hexadecane in a novel micro-reactor. Fuel. 1990;69:1537.
23. Williams PT, Besler S. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waste derived pyrolitic oils. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 1994;30:17.