Presence of C4 Sugars in Honey Samples Detected by The Carbon Isotope Ratio Measured by IRMS
More details
Hide details
Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Nutrition Section, Department of Medical Clinical, University of So Paulo, 14049-900, Ribeiro Preto, SP, Brazil
Department of Genetics Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo, 14049-900, Ribeiro Preto, SP, Brazil.
Publish date: 2017-10-04
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2007;2(3):134–141
Honey is occasionally adulterated with low-cost sugars. The 13C/12C ratio is -22 to -33δ‰, in honey from C3 plants, –10 to –20δ‰ in honey from C4 plants, and –11 to –13.5δ‰ in honey from Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants. When C4 sugar is added to pure honey, the 13C/12C ratio will be altered, whereas it corresponding 13C/12C ratio protein extract will remains constant. The difference accepts in 13C/12C results between honey and its associated protein extract is -1δ‰ deviation, which provides the international benchmark of 7% of C4 sugar added. This is the international tolerated limit established to consider the honey pure or not. In the present study, 30 imported honey samples were analyzed by ISCIRA mass spectrometry. Twelve of them came from country A, 10 from B, 4 from C, and 4 from D. Six of the samples from country A (50%) and 4 of the samples from country B (40%), were adulterated, whereas none of the samples from countries C and D were adulterated. We also analyzed exogenous sugars, (cane sugar, and corn sugar) and the mean of ten replicates was –11.6 and –10.5δ‰ deviation respectively; as well the two pure honey and the pure honey were proposal adulterated with exogenous sugars, by serial dilution as: 0; 0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 15; 20; 50 and 70%.
1. Terrab A, Vega-Perez JM, Diez MJ, Heredia FJ (2001) Characterization of northwest Moroccan honeys by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of their sugar components. J Sci Food Agric 82(2): 179-185.
2. Miguel Ordoˆez Y, Echazarreta C M and Mora-Escobedo R (2005) 13C Isotopic index of honey production in the Yucatan peninsula, M…xico. J Agric Res 44(2): 49-53.
3. Association of Analytical Chemists (1990) Official Methods of Analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th . Edition, Arlington, Virginia.
4. Hatch M D, Slack C R and Johnson H S (1967) Further studies on a new pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in sugar cane and its occurrence in other plant species. Biochem. J 102: 417-422.
5. Hatch M D and Slack C R (1979) Photosynthetic CO2 fixation pathway. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol 21: 141-162.
6. White J W and Winters K (1989) Honey protein as internal standard for stable carbon isotope ratio detection of adulteration honey. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 72: 907-911.
7. White J W (1992) Internal standard stable carbon isotope ratio method for determination of C4 plant sugars in honey: collaborative study and evaluation of improved protein preparation procedure. J Assoc Official Anal Chem 75: 543-548.