Protein-Phenolic Interactions in Food
Haroon Ali 1  
,   Inteaz Alli 1,   Ashraf Ismail 1,   Selim Kermasha 1
More details
Hide details
Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, St-Anne-De-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
Haroon Ali   

Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, St-Anne-De-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
Publication date: 2017-11-02
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2012;7(3):123–133
Interest in protein-phenol interactions in biological systems has increased substantially during the past two decades. More recently, there has been particular interest in protein–phenol interactions in food systems, as a result of widespread reports on the roles of phenolic compounds in nutrition and health. Many phenolic compounds are now recognized for their nutraceutical properties. The biochemical, nutritional and immunological properties of these phenolic compounds, can be associated with their relationship with certain proteins. A good example is the recent recognition of soybean proteins containing isoflavones, for their health benefits and for prevention of certain diseases. In order to understand protein-phenol relationships, it is essential to determine the nature of the chemical/physicochemical interactions between the proteins and the biologically active phenols. The overall objective of our study was to use a model system to investigate the mode of interaction between selected food proteins and phenolic compounds. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and soybean glycinin were used with two phenolic compounds: Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) and biochanin-A (5, 7-dihydroxy 4-methoxy isoflavone). The interactions were investigated at incubation temperatures of 35ºC, 45ºC and 55ºC at pH 5, 7 and 9. SDS and Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to identify protein-phenol interactions. Certain phenolic compounds combined with BSA resulting in higher migration bands and prevention of protein aggregation. In general, the thermal stability of the proteins increased as a result of interaction with the phenolic compounds. The interaction of the phenols with the proteins resulted in changes in protein secondary structure. The most pronounced effects were observed with gallic acid, while the least effects were observed with the isoflavone biochanin-A.
Bartolome B, Estrella I and Hernandez MT. Interaction of low molecular weight Phenolics with protein (BSA). J Food Sci. 2000, 65(4) 617.
Boye JI, Alli I and Ismail AA. Interactions involved in the gelation of bovine serum albumin. J Agric Food Chem. 1996, 44(4), 996.
Clark AH, Saunderson DHP and Suggett A. Infrared and laser raman spectroscopic studies of thermally-induced globular protein gels. Int J Pept Prot Res. 1981, 17, 353.
Friedman M and Jurgens HS. Effect of pH on the stability of plant phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2000, 48(6), 2101.
Hagerman AE. Chemistry of tannin-protein complexation. In: Hemingway RW, Karchesy JJ, Ed. Chemistry and significance of condenced tannins. New York: Plenum press. 1989, P 323.
Haslam E, Williamson MP, Baxter NJ, and Charlton AJ. Astringency and polyphenol protein interactions. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry. 1999, 33, 289.
Haslam E. Plant polyphenols. Practical polyphenolic. From structure to molecular recognition and physiological action. Cambridge University Press. 1998, P 178.
Hvidt A and Nielsen SO. Hydrogen exchange in proteins. Adv Prot Chem. 1966, 21, 287.
Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970, 277, 680.
Messina, Mark J. Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999, 70(3S), 439.
Murray NJ, Williamson MP, Lilley TH, Haslam E. Study of the interaction between proline-rich proteins and a polyphenol by 1H NMR Spectroscopy. Eur J Biochem. 1994, 219, 923.
Palevitz BA. News-soy and isoflavones remain under study for health benefits. Scientist-the News paper for the science professional. 2000, 14(6), P8.
Ramadan EA. Isolation and characterization of a high gelling protein from soybean. Msc thesis. Dept of Food Sci and Agric Chem. Macdonald campus, McGill University. 2000, Chapter 3, P 48.