Raising Farmers Environmental Awareness in the Use of Pesticides and Agriculture Machinery
More details
Hide details
Department of Environmental Education and Management, Faculty of Education Science, Near East University, TRNC, Mersin 10 TURKEY
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Near East University, TRNC, Mersin 10 TURKEY
Publish date: 2018-09-30
Eurasian J Anal Chem 2018;13(5):em57
The study was mainly to determine the farmers awareness in the use of pesticides and agricultural machinery used to spray pesticides in East Tripoli, Libya. Quantitative methods were used with questionnaires administered to 300 respondents as farmers and the result was statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS. From 8 research questions considered, the results showed that in East Tripoli the farmers earn 50% of their income by selling their farm products in the market which are mainly vegetables. Most of the farmers own a store to keep and protect their chemicals under lock in the chemical original packs. For the farmers to know the hazards associated with the chemicals or pesticides to be used they read the instructions before use and they wear protective clothes while preparing the solution. The types of protective clothes the farmers in East Tripoli majorly wear are gloves and this type of PPE has been used for the past 11 years and above. There is a statistically significant and linear combination of independent factors significantly related to PPE’s that protect the farmers from danger and farmers’ knowledge about safe use of PPE’s. There is a statistically significant difference between male and female farmers influence on the awareness of spraying plant and vegetal plants. Therefore, gender influences the awareness of spraying plants and vegetal products. There is no correlation or relationship between farmer’s education level and purchasing of agricultural products. Therefore, farmer’s education level affects purchasing agricultural products. There is also no correlation or relationship between application of PPE and type of sprayer. The result suggested that monthly income does not have any significant positive difference in the use of machineries associated with pesticide application. The farmers are aware of modern machinery for spraying of pesticides and they also use irrigation system during the process of spraying which indicates that they make use.
1. The World Bank. Libya Overview. 2017. Retrieved from
2. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Agriculture Truly Sustainable now for Food Security in a Changing Climate Trade and Environment Review 2013 Make Agriculture Truly Sustainable Now For Food Security and a Changing Climate. 2013. Retrieved from
3. EPA. Pesticide registration (PR) notice 2009-X draft: pesticide drift labeling. Washington DC. 2009. Retrieved on 1st December, 2017 from!d....
4. Pimentel D. Environmental and economic costs of application of pesticides primarily in the United States. Journal of Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2005;7:229-252.
5. Cai DW. Understand the role of chemical pesticides and prevent misuses of pesticides. Bulletin of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2008;1:36-38.
6. FAO. International code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides. (Revised Version adopted by the 123rd Session of the FAO Council in November 2002). Rome: FAO. 2015.
7. FAO. Rural transport and traction enterprises for improved livelihoods, by P. Crossley, T. Chamen, & J. Kienzle. FAO Diversification booklet No.10. Rome. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) of 1947. 2009.
8. Cooper J, Dobson H. The benefits of pesticides to mankind and the environment. Crop Protection. 2007;26:1337-1398.
9. Zhang W, Jiang F, Ou J. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2011;1(2):125-144.
10. Amber SMM, Gramig B, Prokopy LS. Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers. Climate Risk Management. 2017;15:8–17.
11. Osei-Boadu M. Assessment of Pesticides residue levels in Cocoa beans from the Sefwi Wiawso District of the western Region of Ghana. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 2014.
12. Yeboah FA, Mensah FO, Afreh AK. The Prob-able Toxic Effects of Aerosol Pesticides on Hepatic Function among Farmers at Akomadan/Afrancho Tradi-tional Area of Ghana. Journal of Ghana Science Association. 2004;6(2):39-43.
13. Mensah FO, Yeboah FA, Akman M. Survey of the Effect of Aerosol Pesticide Usage on the Health of Farmers in the Akomadan and Afrancho Farming Community. Journal of Ghana Science Association. 2004;6(2):44-48.
14. Sosan MB, Akingbohungbe AE, Ojo IAO, Durosinmi MA. Insecticide residues in the blood serum and domestic water source of cacao farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. Chemosphere. 2008;72(5):781–784.
15. Sosan MB, Akingbohungbe AE. Occupational Insecticide Exposure and Perception of Safety Measures among Cacao Farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. Archives of Environment and Occupational Health. 2009;64(3):185–193.
16. Ogunjimi SI, Farinde AJ. Farmers’ Knowledge Level of Precautionary Measures in Agro-Chemicals Usage on Cocoa Production in Osun and Edo States, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2012;2(4):186–194.
17. Antwi-Agyakwa AK. Susceptibility of field populations of cocoa mirids, sahlbergella singularis haglund and distantiella theobroma (distant) to bifenthrin. Master’s thesis. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 2013. Retrieved from
18. Saowanee N, Wattasit S, Sumana S, Robson M. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) of Using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Chilligrowing Farmers in Huarua Sub-Distfuct, Mueang District, Ubonrachathani Province, Thailand. Journal of Health Resources. 2010;24(2):93-100.
19. Pal SK, Das Gupta SK. Pesticide application skill development series No. 17 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Patancheru 502 - 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. 1996.
20. Ohayo-Mitoko GJ, Kromhout H, Karumba PN, Boleij JS. Identification of determinants of pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers using empirical modelling. Journal of Agriculture. 1999;43:519–525.
21. Singh B, Gupta MK. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India. Indian Journal Environmental Medicine. 2009;13(3):127–130.
22. Theodor F. Agricultural Pesticide Application: Concepts for Improvements. FAO Agricultural Engineering Branch, Rome, Italy. 1-10. 2010.
23. Heong KL, Jusoh MM, Hoy NK, Anas AN. Sprayer usage among rice farmers in the Muda area, Malaysia; Tropical Pest Management. 1992;38(3):327-330.
24. Wiles T. Pesticide Application Equipment in Latin America; Report FAO/AGSE, Rome/Italy. 1994.
25. Winchester PD, Huskins J, Ying J. Agrichemicals in surface water and birth defects in the United States. Acta Paediatrica. 2009;98:664–669. 1651-2227.2008.01207.x.
26. Hirschhorn N. Pesticide Associated Health Hazards: a 2-Year Field Study from Indonesia; Seminar June 7, 1993, FAO, Rome/Italy. 1993.
27. Matus FDM, Beck YIM. Uso Manejo y Riesgos Asociados a Plaguicidas en Nicaragua, Proyecto Regional de Plaguicidas, CSUCA, Managua/Nicaragua. 1991.
28. Croppenstedt A, Demeke M, Meloria M, Meschi M. Technology adoption in the presence of constraints: The case of fertiliser demand in Ethiopia, Oxford: Centre for the Study of African Economies. 1998.
29. World Bank. World development report (2000): Attacking poverty. Washington, D.C: Oxford University Press. 2000.