Thorns, a Novel Natural Plants for Adsorption of Lead (II) Ions from Wastewater Equilibrium, Isotherm, Kinetics and Thermodynamics

Mohammed Jaafar Ali Alatabe, Nagam Obaid Kariem

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Adsorption, Thorns, Lead, Equilibrium, Isotherms, Kinetics, Thermodynamic


Thorns, a one-of-a-kind plant material, have been discovered to have strong adsorption capacities over a wide range of Pb(II) concentrations. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the adsorption of Pb(II) ions. The impacts of various parameters such as pH, contact time, beginning concentration, and different electrolytes were investigated using a batch technique in order to determine the optimal conditions for maximum adsorption. The adsorbent data was evaluated using Langmuir, Freundlich, and isotherm equations at 30°, 40°, and 50°C. Pb(II) adsorption was found to be spontaneous and endothermic using thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy change (ΔH°), free energy change (ΔG°), and entropy change (ΔS°). Various kinetics models, including as pseudo-first-order kinetics model and pseudo-second-order kinetics model, were applied to the experimental data to estimate the adsorption kinetics. The pseudo-second-order kinetics model rate equation was found to be better obeyed than the pseudo-first-order rate equation when the starting concentration of Pb(II) was varied at constant temperature, indicating that chemisorption were involved.